The course aims to provide the basic methodological tools for the study of fluid machinery and thermal power plants.
Learning outcomes (Dublin Descriptors)
1. Knowledge and understanding
The student must know
-the main functions performed by fluid machines and thermal power plants;
-the basic laws and standards on fluid machines and thermal power plants;
-the structural and functional characteristics of fluid machines and thermal power plants;
-the basic criteria for designing fluid machines and thermal power plant components;
-The operating problems of fluid machines and thermal power plants.
2. Applying knowledge and understanding
The student must demonstrate
-to apply the criteria for the selection and sizing of fluid machines and of the components of a thermal power plant;
-to understand the problems linked to the operation of fluid machines and thermal power plants.
3. Making judgements
The student must demonstrate that he has the basic knowledge for dealing and deepening in an autonomous way the issues related to the operation of fluid machines and thermal power plants.
4. Communication skills
The student must demonstrate the ability to easily explain to people the operation of fluid machines and thermal power plants.
5. Learning skills
The student must be able to update information about fluid machines and thermal power plants through texts and publications relating to the field of energy conversion in order to acquire the ability to undertake further courses, specialized courses and to be able to undertake further studies on energy conversion system and components.
The student must have acquired the following knowledge provided by the courses of Physics, Chemistry and Applied Thermodynamics and Heat Transfer.
- Solid body kinematics and dynamics.
- Combustion fundamentals and stoichiometric calculations.
- Thermodynamic properties calculations
- Basic Thermodynamics of thermal Plant
ENERGY CONVERSION (0,5 ECTS-4+2 hours Lesson+Numerical application)
Primary energy sources. Energy saving and environmental issues. Classification of fluid-flow machines and their applications.
THERMODYNAMICS (0,5 ECTS-6+4 h)
Basic concepts. First Law. Maximum efficiency of a heat engine. Reversibility and irreversibility. Entropy production of a system. Control mass and control region. Equation of mass balance and energy balance. Applications. Expansion, compression and heat transfer processes. Isentropic Efficiency. Polytrophic Efficiency. Performance estimation of energy conversion processes
STEAM TURBINE PLANTS (1,5 ECTS-6+4 hours)
Steam-Turbine based power generation plants. Rankine Cycle. Reheating Rankine cycle. Performance of regenerative steam turbine plant. Heat exchangers. Schematics of nuclear plant. Steam generator classification. Natural and forced circulation. One Through Steam Generator. Combustion Efficiency. Efficiency estimation of steam generators
GAS TURBINE PLANT (1,5 ECTS-6+4 hours)
The basic Cycle. Variations on the basic cycle. Ideal and real Performance. Compressor, Combustor and Turbine. Heavy duty and aeroderivative plant configuration. Materials for advanced GT. Turbine blade cooling. Performance of regenerative gas turbine plant. Intercooling and Reheating. Part-load operation. Steam Injection Gas Turbine and Combined cycle power plant
INTERNAL COMBUSTION RECIPROCATING ENGINE (1,0 ECTS-6+2 hours)
Cycle analysis with ideal gas working fluid; real engine cycles; valve-timing and valve-lift diagrams; power and Torque output, Efficiency and engine operating parameters; Supercharging. Emissions
FLUID DYNAMICS: REVIEW OF THE FUNDAMENTALS (1,0 ECTS-4+2 hours)
Basic concepts of Gas dynamics and gas properties. Compressibility. Steady Flow Energy Equation. Acoustic velocity. Mach Number. Stagnation Temperature and Pressure. Velocity variations with isentropic flow. Criteria for acceleration and deceleration. Convergent-Divergent Nozzle. Entropy considerations. Wave Phenomena. Weak waves. Compression Waves- Oblique Shock. Normal Shock waves. Schlieren shadow graph
TURBOMACHINERY (1,5 ECTS-8+4 hours)
Generalities and constructive aspects. Blades and principle of operations. Fluid flow through channels. Turbine rows. Energy transformation in a turbine stage and ist efficiency. Energy loses within a turbine stage. Velocity triangles and Eulerian expression of the shaft work. Transformations of fluid between vanes: nozzles and diffusers. One-dimensional analysis of the flow. Design process and calculation of stage performance. Part-load Turbine operation
PUMPS AND COMPRESSORS (1,5 ECTS-8+2 hours)
Basic liquid and gas Laws. Types of flow and losses. Euler’s equation. Performance analysis of dynamic pumps and compressors. Impeller blades design. Performance curve and operational limits. Pumping systems, pump type and performance. Pump characteristics. Head, Capacity, Power, Efficiency and Net Positive Suction Head (NPSH). Pump Curves and System Curves.. Positive Displacement Pumps, Reciprocating and Rotary Dynamic Pumps Types, Centrifugal, Axial, Mixed, Multistage compressor construction, types, characteristics and performance. Positive displacement compressors, reciprocating compressors, reciprocating compressors, diaphragm compressors. Rotary compressors, rotary screw compressor, lobe type air compressor, sliding vane compressors, liquid ring compressors
Dynamic compressors, centrifugal compressors, axial compressors. Principle of operation and performance curves. Surging and choking problems. HYDROPOWER PLANTS Schematics of hydropower station. Power output and efficiency. Turbine classification and specific speed
Energy Conversion Fundamentals
Steam Turbine Plants
Gas Turbine Plant
Internal Combustion Reciprocating Engine
Fundamentals of Fluid Dynamics
Pumps And Compressors
Lectures, classroom exercises
Dipak Sarkar, “Thermal Power Plant: Design and Operation”, Elsevier (1747) ASIN: B01FKWFHR8
Dixon, “Fluid mechanics and thermodynamics of turbomachinery; Elsevier India (2014)
ISBN-10: 9351071774; ISBN-13: 978-9351071778
Notes provided by the teacher
The exam includes the verification of the level of achievement of the previously indicated training objectives. The exam is divided into two parts:
- a written test to assess whether the student has learned the basic principles for evaluating the performance of fluid machines and energy conversion systems. The test includes exercises: i) performance estimation of a power plant thermodynamic cycle (gas turbine or steam power plant reciprocating engine); ii) performance estimation and design of an expansion stage (including velocity triangles and blades representation); iii) performance estimation of reciprocating engines, pumps or compressor.
- an interview in which the level of knowledge and the ability to present the topics covered during the course will be assessed. The interview will consist of at least three questions on thermodynamic topics applied to the study of energy conversion plants; fluid dynamics of turbomachinery; internal combustion engines.
The aim assessment of the written test is aimed at admission to the interview and will be considered passed if at least two of the three exercises have been carried out correctly. The final evaluation will take into account the correctness of the exercises carried out, the correctness and the quality of representation of diagrams, schematics and figures; of the correct use of symbols and formulas; of the ability to exhibit and master the topics.