Università degli Studi di Napoli "Parthenope"

Teaching schedule

Academic year: 
Belonging course: 
Course of Bachelor's Degree Programme on COMPUTER SCIENCE
Disciplinary sector: 
Year of study: 
First Semester
Hours of front activity: 


Course description

The course is an introduction of the general methodologies, techniques and working knowledge related to the Virtual Reality. The course offers an introduction to the Virtual Reality Language X3D, ised for the software development in Laboratory lessons that represents a crucial part of the course.
Knowledge and Understanding capability: The student
must able to know and to understand the Virtual Reality foundations, paying particular attention
to the Virtual Reality Devices and X3d Programming language.
Ability of applying knowledge and understanding: the student must show to use the knowledge acquired in the course for developing three- dimensional graphical environments, reproducing virtual reality or videogames. Such a capability displays also in a deep and aware use of the techniques that the Computer Science and the Computer Graphics offer.
Independent Judgement: The student must be able to
evaluate independently the effectiveness of a Virtual Reality System.
Communication Skills: Communication Skills Of students will be developed in the following way.
The student will have to write a technical report
that will describe the exam project.
Besides, he should be able to describe orally effectively his project using the most appropriate presentation techniques.
Learning Ability: The student must be able to do self-learning, using all the resources (Software, scientific papers, books, software) available in the WEB


The knowledge and the know-how learnt in the courses of Mathematics I, Programming I and Laboratory of Programming I, Programming II and Laboratory of Programming II are required, Algoruthms and Data Structure and Laboratory are required.


Introduction to the Course
- Mathematical Models for the Color Representation- RGB, CMY, YUV/YIQ Color Spaces. NTSC, PAL, SECAM Television Systems.
- JPEG Image Compression Standard. MPEG-2 Video Compression Standard.
- Movie Effects: Cut, Fade, Dissolves. Morphing and Image Warping.
- Introduction to the Virtual Reality.
Historical Background: Flight and Space Simulators, Movie and Entertainment Industry.
Virtual Reality Applications.
- Real-Virtuality Continuum. Burdea's Virtual Reality Triangle: Immersion, Interaction, Real Time.
Immersive, SemiImmersive, Non Immersive Systems. Presence. An Example of semiImmersive System: CAVE.
- Trasformations in Computer Graphics: Traslations, Scaling, Rotation. Homogeneous Coordinates.
Euler Angles. Quaternions.
- Trackers. Tracker Performance: Accuracy, Resolution, Jitter, Drift, Latency. Types of Trackers: Mechanical, Magnetic, Ultrasonic, Optical and Inertial Trackers. Data Glove, Helmet Mounted Display (HMD), Eye-Trackers.
-Haptic Interfaces. Kinestesia
-Elements of HCI (Human-Computer Interfaces). Postures and Gestures. Kendon Gesture Continuum. Hand Poses Recognition based on Data Glove.
-Introduction to Virtual Reality Languages: VRML and X3D.
- Construction of X3D First World.
- Graphical Primitives in X3D: Box, Cylinder, Cone, Sphere. The Text node.
- The Coordinate System of X3D. The Group and the Trasform nodes.
- Rappresentation of generic objects: The IndexFaceSet node. The Anchor and Inline nodes.
- Lights in X3D: Directional Light, Emissive Color, Diffuse Color, SpotLight node.
-Textures in X3D: images and videos. Pixel Texture, Texture Transform. The NavigationInfo node.
- Animation in X3D. The TimeSensor node. Interpolator nodes: Position, Scale and Color Interpolator. Background. Background Animation.
-Scripting in X3D: The Script node. EcmaScript.
Examples of JavaScript and Ecmascript codes. Browser Methods. Usage of Java in Script node.
-Interaction in X3D: The TouchSensor, PlaneSensor and ShapeSensor node. The KeySensor and StringSensor nodes.
- Audio in X3D.
- Humanoids. Humanoid Animation Standard. Examples of Humanoid Animation.

Teaching Methods


- G. Burdea, P. Coiffet: “Virtual Reality Technology”, John Wiley and sons, New York, 2003.
- D. Brutzmann, L. Daly: “X3D: Extensible 3D Graphics for Web Authors”, Morgan Kaufmann, 2007.

The video of all lessons are available in the e-learning platform of Department of Science and Technology. The slides of all lesson are available in the same platform, together with X3D exercises,
performed in laboratory, during the course.

Learning assessment

The aim of verification procedure is to assess the achievement level of educational targets fixed in advance.
The verification procedure is described in the e-learning platform of Department of Science and Technology.
The verification procedure (or exam) consists in the
development of a software projected implemented in
a virtual reality language (X3D or another one proposed by the student, e.g., UNITY) and in an oral exam, partly devoted to the project presentation, partly to the assessment of the acquisition of the course notions. The project and the oral exam concur in an equal manner to the formulation of final mark
of exam.

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