HEAT, VENTILATION AND AIR CONDITIONING
The aim of the course is to give engineering students a technical-design knowledge related to the field of HVAC systems. Based on the analysis of the interior microclimate and of the thermal and hygrometric loads, the various types of HVAC and the selection criteria are described from an energy and economic point of view for a system optimization. The problems encountered in the design stage and the design methodology of HVAC systems are shown. The students are required to carry out an exercise, aimed at verifying the capacity to design the different types of conditioning systems.
Fluid and thermal sciences
FIRST MODULE (6 ECTS): Properties of moist air and transformations. The thermo-physical properties of building materials : thermal conductivity, vapor permeability , thermal capacity. Technical standards. The thermo-hygrometric verification of building components: vapor diffusion equation, condensation phenomena in building components, verification methods, techniques, protection techniques of components (vapor barrier and thermal insulation). Isolation techniques of building components: diffuse and concentrated isolation, the problems of external, internal and interstitial insulation, in vertical walls and in floors, special types of construction: straight and inverted roof, coat insulation. Bioclimatic architecture: a brief outline of the use of solar energy (solar roofs and ventilated façade), the heat capacity of the buildings. Thermal loads of buildings: the heat losses of the building envelope, thermal bridges, the free contributions, the thermal inertia of buildings, methods of calculation. The verification of building energy consumption: coefficients of thermal dispersion, current regulations. Exercises: project developed during the course concerning the thermal insulation of a building, evaluation of thermal loads and verification of energy consumption by calculation codes. SECOND MODULE (6 ECTS): The production and distribution of heat. Fuels, burners, chimney, boilers. The central heating systems, hot water, superheated water, steam. Pipes calculation. The use of heat. The refrigeration cycle. Reminders of basic concepts and laws. The reverse Carnot cycle. The real cycle. The heat pump. The refrigerants. The components of the refrigeration systems. Reciprocating compressors, condensers, cooling towers, evaporators. Refrigeration units with centrifugal compressors and absorption machine with lithium bromide. The hydraulic circuits. General information. Sizing of pipes and circulation pumps. The insulation. The water treatment. Fans. Air ducts. The motion of the air in the ducts. Various types of fans. Fans in series and in parallel. The regulation of flow rate. Design of air distribution channels in air conditioning systems. Methods of construction. Final control systems. Regulation of steam, water and air flow rate. The partial-load operation of the air conditioning systems. The zoning. Type of system. Features and calculation of various types of air conditioning systems. Air systems, air/water systems, water systems, refrigerant fluid systems. Multi-zone systems, dual channel systems, induction systems, fan coil systems(with or without primary air), variable flow rate systems. Comparison between different types of systems and application criteria. The machines for air conditioning . Autonomous air conditioners.
Impianti di climatizzazione per l’edilizia, Alfano, Filippi, Sacchi, Masson. Professor's notes