TRAINING IN EXERCISE AND SPORTS
The course focuses on the knowledge of the biochemical, physiological and biomechanical principles that regulate human movement, as well as on the acquisition of suitable tools for assessing posture, physical fitness and body composition.
In particular, the course will allow the student to:
- know and understand the biochemical, physiological and biomechanical principles underlying the functions of the musculo-skeletal system; the course will give also the conoscence and competences (skills) related to the assessment of posture, physical fitness and body composition (Knowledge and understanding);
- apply the knowledge in the professional field by adapting the general strategies reported in the course to the specific work-related e circumstances, taking into account the age of the subjects to whom it focuses (Applied knowledge and understanding skills);
- evaluate independently different work-related contexts of sports and sports sciences (both in terms of sports discipline and availability of field area and tools) and, on the basis of this judgment, select the appropriate solution for each of them (making judgments);
- acquire an appropriate scientific language and communicate their knowledge and skills properly to specialists and non-specialists in the sports field (communication skills)
- keep on studying topics of greatest interest to his/her professional field by selecting the most accurate sources of information and the most appropriate methodologies (learning Skills).
Preliminary knowledge of human anatomy, biology, biochemistry and physiology are required.
Lectures (6 CFU)
Biomechanics of movement. Regions and parts of the human body; terms of direction; axes and planes of movement; movements around the axes; components of the locomotor system: bones, joints, tendons and ligaments, articular cartilage; stress-strain curves; viscoelasticity; biomechanical behavior of musculoskeletal tissues.
Skeletal muscle. Structure and function of skeletal muscle; type 1 and 2 fibers; mechanisms and modes of muscle contraction; muscle roles; polyarticular muscles; metabolism of the different fibers of the striated muscle; power and capacity of a metabolic pathway; lactate production according to the type / intensity of exercise: lactate threshold (OBLA); MAXLASS; MLSSV; EPOC; lactate effects on sports performance and fatigue.
Posture. Assessment of posture; alterations of the physiological curves of the spine: scoliosis; kyphosis; lordosis; postural defects: scoliotic behavior; physical exercise in improving posture and scoliotic attitudes.
Evaluation of physical fitness in relation to health or competition. Definition of physical fitness and cardiorespiratory fitness: definition of VO2max; difference between field tests and Graded exercise tests (GXT); major tests for evaluation of cardiorespiratory fitness in healthy subjects and relative predictive equations; Eurofit; YMCA; President Challenge test; strength evaluation test: 1-RM evaluation (direct and indirect methods); test for the flexibility of trunk and limb; Range for Motion (ROM) test, goniometer.
Evaluation of Body Composition. Definition of body composition: fat mass (FM); lean mass (FFM); essential fat; differences in body composition between males and females; body weight, body mass index (BMI); ideal weight; body density (DDC) and its evaluation: direct and indirect methodologies; assessment of body composition through indirect methodologies: BIA, plicometry, DEXA. Evaluation of body composition in relation to health and performance.
Content of the technical-practical activity (9 CFUs)
Students will have to acquire technical-practical skills on the following topics:
- Evaluation of cardiorespiratory fitness in healthy subjects;
- Evaluation of muscle fitness in healthy subjects;
- Exercises for treating the spine paramorphisms;
- Evalutation of body composition;
- Prescription of exercise in healthy subjects
-P. Buono et al.“Attività fisica per la salute” II ed., Idelson Gnocchi ed., Napoli 2016
The teaching material is available in blended mode within the Moodle platform (http://e-scienzemotorie.uniparthenope.it/moodle).