The course aims to give the students the essential knowledge to investigate the chemical processes involved in the different fields of engineering.
Knowledge and understanding
At the end of the course the student will have integrated his knowledge about natural phenomena governing the transformation of matter, will have a complete overview of the laws governing the structure of atoms, molecules and compounds; know the theoretical reasons that are at the basis of the energy balance during the transformations of matter, will know how to obtain electrical work by processes of redox transformations.
Applying knowledge and understanding
At the end of the course the student will have developed the ability to understand some physical and chemical characteristics of the substances, such as state of aggregation and volatility, hardness and fragility based on the knowledge of their structure. He will know how to quantify spontaneity of chemical and electrochemical processes and quantify the mass and energy balance during these transformations.
By the end of the course, the student should be able to evaluate, with critical mind, the experimental measurements of chemical reactions
By the end of the course, the student should be able to clearly present the experimental results of chemical reactions.
Ability to search for ways and opportunities of access to knowledge. Ability to process, outline and summarize the contents acquired.
The matter and its properties. Classification of matter: elements, atoms, molecules, compounds.
Atomic structure. The electromagnetic radiation. Atomic models. The shape of atomic orbitals. Electronic configuration of atoms and chemical periodical. Periodic trends in the size of atoms, of the ionization energy, electronic affinity and electronegativity.
Atoms and elements. The molar mass. The mole. The balanced chemical equation: stoichiometric relationships. The limiting reagent in a chemical reaction. Stoichiometry
The chemical bond. The valence electrons. The ionic bond. The covalent bonds and Lewis structures. The polarity of the bond. Molecular geometry. Hybridization. VSEPR theory. Nomenclature of inorganic compounds. Metallic bond.
The gaseous state. Pressure and temperature of the gas. The ideal gas law. Gaseous mixtures. The distribution of molecular speed. Real gases: Van der Waals equation.
Condensed phases. Intermolecular forces. Hydrogen bond. Liquid state.
Solid state: ionic solids, covalent solids, metallic solids, molecular solids. The phase diagrams.
Thermochemistry. State functions. The principles of thermodynamics. Free energy and spontaneity of reactions.
The solutions. Factors affecting solubility: pressure and temperature. Quantitative expressions of concentration. Properties of solutions. Raoult’s law. Colligative properties.
The chemical balance. Chemical kinetics.
Chemical equilibrium. The law of mass action: equilibrium constant. Relation between Kc and Kp. Le Chatelier's principle. The parameters that can influence the equilibrium conditions. Equilibria in aqueous solution. Definition of acid and base. Monoprotic acids and bases in water. Water autoionization. Strength of acids and bases. The pH. The neutralization. Hydrolysis reactions. Problems that involve heterogeneous equilibria (solubility product).
Electrochemistry. Balancing redox reactions. Galvanic cells. Dry batteries. Electrolytic cells.
Brown, Lemay, Bursten, Murphy, Woodward, FONDAMENTI DI CHIMICA (terza edizione), Casa ed. EDISES, Napoli.
Giannoccaro, Doronzo, ELEMENTI DI STECHIOMETRIA, Casa ed. EDISES, Napoli.
Lecture notes by the professor