PHYSIOLOGY OF SPORT
The class will provide the study and comprehension of basic mechanisms of functioning of human organs and tissues, with particular emphasis to functional and metabolic adaptations caused by training programs, particularly power training and resistance training.
Knowledge and understanding skills. Students must know the adaptations induced by physical exercise in tissue/organs which are important for physical exercise.
Ability to apply knowledge and comprehension. Students, based on the acquired information on tissue/organ adaptations, might be able to plan specific training programs for different types of athletes.
Autonomy of judgement. Students must be able to deepen the topics presented during the class, taking advantage of published scientific literature available.
Communicative skills. Students must be able to present and explain to un-experts each topic by means of a scientific and appropriate language.
Learning ability. Students must demonstrate to have understood the main aims of the class, by asking questions to the teacher if necessary and by proposing scientific discussions concerning the topics of the class.
Deep human physiology notions and sufficient notions of physics, biology and biochemistry are needed to attend this class.
Energy reserves within the cells, ATP and phosphocreatine. Energy release from carbohydrates: anaerobic glycolysis, lactate accumulation, Cori’s cycle. Krebs’ cycle. Oxidative phosphorylation.
Promptly available energy for physical exercise, ATP and phosphocreatine. Long term energy, the aerobic system. Oxygen consumption, oxygen debt, maximal oxygen consumption during steady state performance. Type I and II muscle fibers. Oxygen consumption during recovery after exercise. Active and passive recovery.
Structure and function of the respiratory system. Respiration mechanics, lung volumes and lung capacity. Lung static and dynamic volumes. Effects of physical training on lung functions. Pulmonary ventilation. Ventilation during physical exercise. Role of the respiratory system in the regulation of blood pH.
Cardiovascular system. Blood pressure, systolic and diastolic pressure. Intrinsic regulation of heart rate, the pacemaker activity. Sympathetic and parasympathetic control of heart rate. Control of the volume of circulating blood and its distribution in peripheral organs. Cardiac output, heart rate and systolic volume in sedentary subjects vs. athletes.
Skeletal muscle. Actin and myosin and their organization in sarcomeres. Regulatory proteins. Mechanisms of fiber twitch. Classification of muscle fibers. Isotonic and isometric twitches.
Aerobic and anaerobic capacity training. Cardiovascular, respiratory, muscle fiber adaptations to physical training.
Energy of phosphoric bond, ATP and phosphocreatine.
Energy for physical exercise, anaerobic glycolysis, lactate system, long-term energy, aerobic system.
Adaptations of the respiratory system induced by physical training.
Adaptations of the cardiocirculatory system to physical exercise.
Adaptations of striated muscle by physical exercise.
Training of aerobic and anaerobic capacities.
The class will consist of 24 hours of frontal lessons.
•Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance (Exercise Physiology ( MC Ardle)) by McArdle BS M.Ed PhD, William D., Katch, Frank I.,
Katch, V (2006);
• Any book related to Exercise Physiology for three-years degree in Motor Science.
Aim of the examination test will be to ascertain the achievement of training objectives reported above. By means of an oral test, we will ascertain the level of knowledge of the different topics, scientific language skills, the ability to comunicate concepts and to correlate different topics. The student's ability to explain scientific concepts of physiology by means of X-Y graphs and to gain additional information in published literature will be also assessed. Additionally, the student's ability to elaborate a training program aimed at improving strength of resistance performances in subjects will be also assessed.