BIOCHEMISTRY WITH LAB.
Acquisition of knowledge about the structure and function of the biomolecules, and of the cellular processes involved in the energy transduction.
Basic knowledge of inorganic chemistry and organic chemistry.
Introduction to the biochemistry.
The cellular theory and the molecular bases of life. The structure of eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells: organization, roles of the cell components, energy transduction, reproduction.
Introduction to the structure and properties of proteins, lipid, carbohydrates and nucleic acids. Common reactions of biological systems. The water and the hydrogen bonding.
The proteins: structure and properties of standard aminoacids. The four levels of protein organization. The primary structure and the features of the peptide bond. The secondary structure: alpha-helix and beta-sheet, beta-turns. The tertiary structure: fibrous and globular proteins, protein domains. the native conformation and the denaturation process.
The protein functions: interaction with ligands, (myoglobin and hemoglobin), the allosteric proteins. The enzymes: the theories for the formation of the enzyme-substrate complex. The Michaelis - Menten kinetics, the enzyme inhibition, the allosteric enzymes.
Experimental methods for the study of proteins: isolation, of endo- and exo- cellular proteins. Purification by molecular sieve, ion exchange and affinity chromatography. Gel electrophoresis: native and SDS-PAGE. Basic concepts of mass spectrometry.
The carbohydrates: structure and function. The monosaccharides; the glycosidic bond. Examples of the main oligosaccharides; homo- and hetero-polysaccharides. The glycoconjugates.
The lipids: simple and compound lipids; cellular membranes. Integral and peripheral proteins. Solute's transport across membranes; types of transporters.
The metabolism: thermodynamics and bioenergetics. Hydrolysis of the phosphorylated compounds. The redox processes in the biological systems and the electrons' carrier molecules.
The Glycolysis and Gluconeogenesis: the chemical reactions, the enzymes regulation and the energy balance; alcoholic and lactic fermentation. The pentose phosphate pathway.
Glycogen metabolism: biosynthesis and degradation; regulation and hormone control of biosynthesis and degradation of glycogen.
The Krebs cycle: the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex; the chemical reactions, the enzymes regulation and the energy balance.
The lipids metabolism: beta-oxidation of fatty acids; the chemical reactions, the enzymes regulation and the energy balance. Biosynthesis of fatty acids: Fatty acid synthase (FAS).
The aminoacids metabolism: basic concepts.
The electron transport chain and the oxidative phosphorylation: electron carrier molecules and complexes of the respiratory chain. The chemiosmotic model and the synthesis of ATP.
The hormone regulation of metabolism: structure and function of glucagon, adrenaline and insulin.
The protein synthesis and the genetic code.
The biochemistry course provides the basic knowledge of the structure and properties of the universal cells' components, and of the chemical processes of the primary metabolism of eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells.
The course includes classroom lectures and one laboratory session.
"Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry", David L. Nelson, Michael M. Cox, Ed. Zanichelli
The final exam consists of a written followed by an oral examination that is subject to passing the written test. The written tests will verify the knowledge of metabolic pathways and their regulation. The oral examination will verify the knowledge of the structure and function of biomolecules. The final evaluation will be based on the scores of both written and oral tests.