TECHNICAL PHYSICS AND PLANTS
The course teaches the fundamental principles of thermodynamics, their application to the study of energy conversion systems, and the analysis of heat transfer problems.
Knowledge and understanding:
At the end of the course students must: know the fundamental principles of thermodynamics in their application to the study of closed and open systems; understand how to evaluate thermodynamic properties of pure substances; know how to evaluate the energy performance of the major thermodynamic cycles for energy conversion.
Finally, students know heat transfer mechanisms, and how to evaluate heat transfer problems with particular reference to simple geometries in a stationary mode.
Ability to apply knowledge and understanding:
The student must demonstrate that he / she is able to:
- apply the fundamental principles of thermodynamics to the main systems that are met in engineering practice;
- to evaluate the energy performance of the main thermodynamic cycles for energy conversion;
- to analyze the thermal exchange mechanisms encountered in engineering applications, and to evaluate heat transmission in simple geometries under stationary conditions.
Autonomy of judgment:
The student must demonstrate that he/she has developed the ability to critically and autonomously assess the issues of energy interaction between systems of interest for engineering applications and the surrounding environment.
Student must mature the ability to explain in a simple way, even to people who are not experts in the field, with a clear and rigorous language from a scientific point of view, the issues related to thermodynamic energy conversion and heat transfer.
Students must be able to update by consulting texts and publications related to the energy sector, starting with the knowledge and method of analysis acquired during the course.
Necessary that students have acquired the following knowledge, provided in the I and II Calculus courses:
- Concepts of limits, integration and derivation of functions of a single variable;
- Functions of multiple variables, partial derivatives, and superficial integrals;
- Differential and series of functions.
In addition, it is useful that the student has gained the following knowledge, provided in the Physics I Course: Unit Measurement Systems, Scalar and Vector quantities: Force, velocity, and Acceleration.
Closed systems (1,0 CFU): Basic concepts and definitions; measurement systems. First law of thermodynamics for closed systems and its limitations. Entropy postulate, reversible and irreversible processes; thermodynamic temperature and pressure, Gibbs equation; Second law of thermodynamics for closed systems and some of its consequences, work by volume change; direct and inverse cycles. Thermodynamics of state (1,5 CFU): Characteristic surfaces and thermodynamic curves; specific heat; models for thermodynamic properties of pure substances: incompressible fluids, ideal gases, saturated vapour. Open Systems (2,0 CFU): Transport theorem; conservation laws: mass, energy and entropy; mechanical energy equations; pipes; heat exchangers; turbines; pumps and compressors. Analysis of energy conversion systems (2,0 CFU): The basic Rankine cycle and its modifications, the basic Joule cycle and its modifications, vapour compression refrigeration systems and heat pumps. Introduction to heat transfer (2,0 CFU): Mechanisms: conduction, convection and radiation. General heat conduction equation and boundary conditions, one-dimensional steady-state solutions: planar and cylindrical configurations. Series and parallel mechanisms, insulation critical radius. Radiation heat transfer: radiative properties of surfaces, reflection absorption and transmission, black and grey body radiation, radiative shields, cavity radiation heat transfer. Convection: boundary layers, internal and external convections, Non dimensional numbers for forced and natural convection. Coupled heat transfer mechanisms.
THE COURSE INCLUDES BOTH THEORETICAL LESSONS AND THE CLASSROOM EXERCISES. DURING THE FIRSTS, THE TECHNIQUES USED TO DESCRIBE ENGINEERING PROBLEMS RELATED ENERGY CONVERSION AD TRANSFER. DURING EXERCISES CLASSES, STUDENTS ARE INVITED TO SOLVE AN ENGINEERING PROBLEM, USING THE TECHNIQUES PRESENTED IN THE THEORETICAL LESSONS. THE SOLUTION OF PROPOSED ENGINEERING PROBLEMS IS OFTEN GUIDED BY THE TEACHER, TO DEVELOP AND STRENGTHEN THE ABILITY OF STUDENTS TO IDENTIFY THE BEST TECHNIQUES, HOWEVER, STUDENTS ARE ALSO REQUIRED TO WORK INDIVIDUALLY IN ORDER TO SELF ASSESS THE CAPACITIES AQUIRED BY EACH STUDENT.
ONE OR TWO TECHNICAL VISITS ARE ALSO PROPOSED AT ENERGY CONVERSION PLANTS, WHERE STUDENTS HAVE A WAY TO FACE PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS OF THE COURSE.
Lecture notes available from the course website.
R. Mastrullo, P. Mazzei, R. Vanoli, Termodinamica per ingegneri - Applicazioni, Liguori, 1996. (in Italian)
Y.A. Çengel, Fundamental of thermal-fluid sciences, McGraw-Hill, VI edition - 2016.
FURTHER SUGGESTED READINGS
R. Mastrullo, P. Mazzei, R. Vanoli, Termodinamica degli Stati, Liguori, 1984 (in Italian).
M. Moran, H. N. Shapiro, D. D. Boettner, M. B. Bailey, Principles of Engineering Thermodynamics, Wiley, 8th ed. 2015.
Intermediate exercises (optional, marked at the student's request) are provided on the following topics: application of thermodynamic principles for closed systems; evaluation of the performance of thermodynamic cycles; heat transfer.
The final exam is divided into two parts, which may take place on the same day or over a week (on the basis of the student's needs): a two hours written exam, consisting of three exercises, one for each of the subjects of intermediate exercises (students must demonstrate to solve at least two of the problems presented), and an oral exam during which the understanding of the topics discussed is assessed, the ability to apply the concepts learned to systems encountered in engineering practice and the ability to explain problems faced in a simple but rigorous scientific way.
Exam can be taken in English, upon student's request.