The course of Applied Biology aims at providing students with basic knowledge in:
1. The characteristics of life
2. The molecular composition of cells
3. Structure and properties of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell, with focus on animal cells and subcellular structures involved in movement.
4. The flow of genetic information
5. Mitotic and Meiotic cell cycle, reproduction and development
6. Basic Genetics
This course will provide the basic knowledge of biology for the biological- and medical-related disciplines of the B.S. degree in Movement Sciences.
Expected learning outcomes:
o Knowledge and understanding
The student has to learn the basic structure of life, cell biology, molecular biology and the basic genetics.
o Applying knowledge and understanding
The student’ll apply knowledge to:
1. identify the structure and the function of cell and subcellular organelles
2. integrate knowledge
3. the comprehension of complex molecular mechanisms and of intra- and inter- specie cell to cell communications
4. the next courses in biological- and medical-related disciplines.
o Making judgements
The student has to gain the skills to select the appropriate scientific sources in order to make correct data integration and interpretation. At the end of the course, he’ll be able to easily identify and compare different cell structures, to explain their functions and the corresponding molecular mechanisms.
The student has to explain knowledge using a proper scientific language, thus demonstrating a full comprehension of the course topics.
o Lifelong learning skills
The student has to develop the appropriate learning method in order to easily improve and upgrade his skills/knowledge
AN INTRODUCTION TO BIOLOGY
The proprieties of life
Mono-cellular and pluri-cellular organisms
Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell, differences and comparison
Autotroph vs Heterotroph
THE MOLECULAR COMPOSITION OF CELLS
H2O: structure, properties and biological relevance
Carbohydrates: monosaccharides, oligosaccharides and polysaccharides
Lipids: fatty acids, simple lipids, compound lipids and steroids
Proteins: the amino acid residues and the peptide bond; primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structures; the main functions of proteins in biological systems
Nucleic acids: nucleotides and phosphodiester bond; structure and functions of DNA, mRNA, tRNA and rRNA; genes, chromosomes and genome; the central dogma of molecular biology, from DNA to proteins
PROKARYOTIC CELL: Structure and functions
EUKARYOTIC CELL: Structure and functions
Plasma Membrane: structure; fluid mosaic model; the role of cholesterol; permeability and transport (passive and facilitated diffusion, osmosis, active transport and co-transport).
Ribosome: structure and functions
Citoplasm: Citosol; Ribosome; Endomembrane system: RER, SER, Golgi apparatus, lysosome, peroxisome, transport vesicles, v-SNARE/t-SNARE, exocytosis and endocytosis; Cytoskeleton: microtubules, intermediate filaments and actin filaments, cilia, flagella, motor proteins; cell movement; the sliding filament model of muscle contraction; Mithocondrion: structure, function and endosymbiotic theory
Nucleus: karyotheca; chromatin packaging, histones and nonhistone proteins, the structure of chromosomes; the functional meaning of euchromatin and heterochromatin; human karyotype; nucleolus and ribosome biogenesis
ATP and the basic of metabolism
The synthesis of APT from glucose
The chemiosmotic mechanism for ATP production
Autocrine, paracrine, endocrine, neural and neuroendocrine signalling
Membrane receptors- types and signal transduction
Cytoplasmic receptors- molecular mechanisms
THE FLOW OF GENETIC INFORMATION
DNA replication: semi-conservative, bidirectional and semi-discontinuous replication; molecular mechanisms in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells; replicons; telomeres and telomerase.
Transcription: molecular mechanisms in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells; maturation of eukaryotic mRNA; NORs and the biosynthesis of rRNA in eukaryotic cells
Translation: loading the tRNA with the aminoacid; molecular mechanisms in prokaryotic cell; co-translational translocation and the main signals in protein sorting in eukaryotic cells (SPR, KDEL, M6P, NLS).
Regulation of gene expression in eukaryotic cells
Lytic and lysogenic cycle
Infections of eukaryotic cells
REPRODUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT
Asexual vs. sexual reproduction
Mendelian inheritance: genotype and phenotype, Mendel's laws, the cross-test.
The chromosomal theory of inheritance: Alleles, the genetic significance of meiosis, genetic variability, linked and unlinked genes
Allele interactions: multiple alleles, incomplete dominance, codominance; AB0 blood group system
Sex linked inheritance: sex determination; inactivation of X chromosome, sex linked genes
DNA mutations: Types, causes and biological consequences
Cell Biology 2ECTS
Molecular biology 2 ECTS
Genetics: 2 ECTS
The properties of life
The molecular composition of cells
Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell, structure, properties, differences and comparison
The flow of genetic information
Mitotic and Meiotic cell cycle, reproduction and development
Student can choose one text among:
• Sadava D., Hillis D.M., Heller H.C., Berenbaun M.R. Elementi di Biologia e Genetica IV Edizione 2014 Zanichelli
• Campbell N.A., Reece J.B. et al Biologia e Genetica Pearson Education X Edizione 2017
• Solomon, Berg, Martin Elementi di biologia Edizione: VII/2017, EdiSES
• Brooker RJ, Windmaier EP, Graham LE, Stiling PD Biologia generale McGraw- Hill