Università degli Studi di Napoli "Parthenope"

Teaching schedule

Academic year: 
2017/2018
Belonging course: 
Course of Bachelor's Degree Programme on SPORTS SCIENCE
Location: 
Napoli
Disciplinary sector: 
GENERAL AND SUBSPECIALTY PAEDIATRICS (MED/38)
Credits: 
6
Year of study: 
3
Teachers: 
Dott.ssa VALERIO GIULIANA
Cycle: 
Second semester
Hours of front activity: 
48

Language

Italian

Course description

Knowledge and understanding
The student must demonstrate knowledge and understanding of 1) the bio-psycho-social and nutritional issues related to obesity and thinness and the role of exercise and proper nutrition in the prevention and treatment of these conditions; 2) the role of obesogenic environment on eating behaviors and lifestyle.
Ability to apply knowledge and understanding
The student must be able to define the categories of defect and excess weight, identify the suspicion signs of eating disorders and body image disorders or secondary obesity, evaluate the extent of physical impairment in relation to overweight, understand the meaning of balanced caloric intake for the healthy growth process. The student should be able to understand the behavioral strategies aimed at improving lifestyle and to design protocols of physical activity adapted to severe obesity; to recognize the signs of discomfort related to bullying or body image disorders.
Autonomy of judgment. The student should be able to autonomously deepen the topics covered, develop critical sense and integrate the knowledges deriving from the Pediatrics and Nutrition Biochemistry modules, in order to develop an integrated and multidisciplinary approach towards subjects with obesity and eating disorders.
Communication skills. The student should be able to discuss with an easy, but scientifically correct language, the knowledge acquired with particular regard to the promotion of healthy behaviors for the prevention of obesity and eating disorders.
Learning ability. The student must demonstrate that he/she has understood the objectives of the course through classroom discussion about the topics of the program, the analysis of the international literature, including national and international guidelines and self-evaluation on the proposed themes.
Prerequisites
The student must possess general knowledge provided by the courses of Hygiene, Physiology, Methods and teaching of motor activities, Methods and teaching of sports activities.

Prerequisites

Pediatrics module
To have general knowledge provided by the courses of Hygiene, Physiology, Methods and teaching of motor activities, Methods and teaching of sports activities.

Biochemistry of Nutrition module
To have general knowledge provided by the course of Biochemistry

Syllabus

Pediatrics module
General issues on the growth process. Height and weight growth, pubertal development. The adipose tissue: distribution and function. Age related changes of the body composition. Anthropometric measurements: BMI, skinfold thickness and circumferences. The percentiles. Definition of underweight, overweight, obesity in children and adults
Obesity: Epidemiology. Causes (genetic, environmental, endocrine, psycho-social). Physical consequences: hypertension, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus, respiratory disorders, orthopedic complications. Psycho-social correlates.
Thinness: Epidemiology. Causes: nutritional, endocrine, psycho-social factors. Disorders of eating behavior and body image. Consequences: anemia, amenorrhea, osteoporosis.
Weight control strategies Changing eating and motor behaviors, reducing sedentariness. Physical and psychological barrieres to physical activity. Adapted exercise to severe obesity in the child (type, intensity, frequency).
Prevention strategies for obesity and eating behavior disorders.
Highlights of feeding in pediatric age. The taste. Appetite and satiety regulation. The importance of lifestyle and physical efficiency for health. The role of the family, the school and the community.

Biochemistry of Nutrition module
•Macronutrients. Protein. Function, peptide binding, essential amino acids, proteins of animal origin and vegetable origin, high value biological proteins. Nutritional requirements. Lipids. Classification, function, triglycerides, omega-3 fatty acids, omega-6 fatty acids, hydrogenated fatty acids, palm oil. Nutritional requirements. Carbohydrates. Classification, function, index and glycemic load of foods, blood glucose control, nutritional requirements.
• Micronutrients. Water-soluble vitamins and liposoluble vitamins. Structure, classification, property, biological role, food sources. Structure, classification, property, biological role. Water-soluble vitamins. Group B, vitamin C. Food sources, recommended levels of intake, consequences of deficiencies. Vitamins are liposoluble. Vitamin A, vitamin E, vitamin D, vitamin K. Food sources, recommended levels of intake, consequences of deficiencies. Macro elements: sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium. Trace elements. trace elements
• The water. Water and the human body, water balance.
• Foods. Characteristics and classification. Food groups. Group I foods: milk and foodstuffs Food of Group II: meat, fish, eggs, legumes. Group III foods: cereals, derivatives, potatoes. Group IV foods: fat and seasonings. V Group Foods: Vegetables and Fruits. Beverages.
• Antioxidants. Free radicals and oxidative stress. Food Antioxidants and Supplements. Phytochemicals. Nutraceuticals.
• Bioenergetics and energy requirements. Energy value of food. Calorimeter bomb. Digestibility coefficient. Calories of macronutrients. Energy dispersal and energy requirements of the body: basal metabolism, direct calorimetry, indirect calorimetry, predictive equations; thermogenesis induced by diet, thermogenesis induced by physical activity. RDAs.
• Analysis of body composition. Free fat mass. Fat mass. Body Composition. Pentacompartmental two-component models. Instrumental analysis of body composition.
• Diets. Macronutrient breakdown. Mediterranean diet, food pyramid. Vegetarian diet. Vegan diet.
• Nutrigenetics and nutrigenomics. Food Evolution. Lactose intolerance. Celiac disease. DNA Diet.
• Metabolic adjustment of the feeding and fasting cycle. Times of nutrition and fasting: metabolic pathways involved. Glucid metabolism. Insulin and glucagon.

The module is divided into 4 blocks

The growth process. Block 1, 12 hrs
Topic 1 Height and weight growth
Topic 2 Pubertal development
Topic 3 Adipose tissue, distribution and function. Age related changes in body composition.
Topic 4 Anthropometric measurements: BMI, skinfolds and circumferences. The percentiles.

Obesity Block 2, 12 hrs
Topic 1 Epidemiology in Italy and in the world.
Topic 2 Causes (genetic, endocrine, environmental, psycho-social)
Topic 3. Physical consequences: hypertension, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus
Topic 4. Respiratory disorders, orthopedic complications, psycho-social correlates.

Thinness Block 3, 9 hrs
Topic 1 Epidemiology. Causes: nutritional, endocrine, psycho-social factors.
Topic 2. Consequences: anemia, amenorrhea, osteoporosis.
Topic 3. Eating behavior and body image disorders.

Weight control strategies. Block 4, 15 hrs
Topic 1 Behavioral modification of eating pattern and physical activity, reduction of a sedentary lifestyle. Physical and psychological difficulties associated with physical activity.
Topic 2 Physical exercise adapted to the extent of weight excess (type, intensity, frequency).
Topic 3 Prevention strategies of obesity and eating behavior disorders
Topic 4 Nutrition requirements and feeding habits across the pediatric age. The taste. Appetite and satiety regulation.
Topic 5 The importance of lifestyle and physical efficiency for health. The role of the family, school and community.

Teaching Methods

Pediatrics module
Frontal lessons, interactive discussion of scientific works, role playing, simulation of practical examples

Biochemistry of Nutrition module
Course includes frontal lessons.

Textbooks

• The free eBook on Child and adolescent obesity available at ebook.ecog-obesity.eu
• Thivel D, Ring-Dimitriou S, Weghuber D, Frelut ML, O’Malley G. Muscle Strength and Fitness in Pediatric Obesity: a Systematic Review from the European Childhood Obesity Group. Obes Facts. 2016;9(1):52-63.
• O’Malley G., Ring-Dimitriou S., Nowicka P., Vania A., Frelut M.L., Farpour-Lambert N., Weghuber D., Thivel D. Physical activity and physical fitness in pediatric obesity: what are the first steps for clinicians Expert conclusion from the 2016 ECOG workshop. Int J Exerc Sci 2017;10(4): 487-96.

Learning assessment

Pediatrics module
Oral exam, aimed at ascertaining the acquisition of acquired knowledge and skills and the ability to make connections with the Biochemistry of Nutrition module on the main topics covered during the course.
With regard to the module of Pediatrics, the first part will focus on the definition of thinness and overweight and the causes or consequences of these two conditions, the second on the role of physical exercise / sport and physical efficiency, associated with proper nutrition, in the prevention or treatment of obesity in the different ages, the third on the main disorders of eating behavior and body image with particular reference to the sport setting, and the role of educator/coach in prevention.
To pass the test of the Pediatrics module it is necessary to acquire at least 18 points out of 30.
The final grade will be given by the average of the marks obtained in the two oral exams, weighted for the number of credits (6 CFU Pediatrics and 3 CFU Biochemistry of nutrition).
If one of the two tests is insufficient, only that test must be repeated.

Biochemistry of Nutrition module
Oral testing to ensure the acquisition of acquired knowledge and skills and the ability to make interdisciplinary links to Biochemistry and Nutrition.

More information

Lectures are in Italian. The
professor is fluent in English and is available to interact with
students in English, also during the examination.”