THE COASTLINE AND ITS PROTECTION
The course of the Coastal Regime and Protection intends to provide the foundations of the study of coastal dynamics and of the problems of defense of the coasts starting from the action of the waves through the knowledge of the criteria of hydraulic and structural design of the works of coastaline protection.
Knowledge and ability to understand
At the end of the course, the student will have acquired the knowledge of the analysis tools for the study of the fundamental properties of sinusoidal and irregular waves. The student will have developed the knowledge of the study of the marine forecast for the understanding of coastal dynamics, and the criteria of hydraulic and structural design of coastal works.
Knowledge and understanding skills applied
The student will have developed the ability to carry out the study of the marine forecast and the analysis of hydraulic and structural design of coastal works, and therefore treat the aspects of calculation. To this end, the course provides for specific calculation exercises, in order to overcome specific tests for the aspects concerning the meteorological study, and exercises for the calculation of hydraulic and structural design of coastal defense works.
Autonomy of judgment
At the end of the course of study, the student will have sufficient autonomy to carry out the study of marine forecast, and to perform the calculation of hydraulic and structural design of coastal defense works. Finally, it will be able to autonomously evaluate the adequacy of the solutions adopted to guarantee the fulfillment of the project requirements of a work to protect a coastline.
Upon passing the exam, the student will have acquired a sufficient language property with regard to the technical terms of the maritime hydraulics and the protection of the shorelines. The student will be able to describe, with appropriate language, also in written form, the most important hydraulic issues of the coastal works project and to represent in an exhaustive form the results of the hydraulic and structural coastal engineering design.
Ability to learn
The student will have acquired the most relevant methods of analysis for the treatment of the aspects of maritime hydraulics for the treatment of the meteorological study and of the hydraulic and structural proportioning of a coastal defense work. It will therefore have acquired the necessary elements to learn in the future the development of knowledge in the field of coastal engineering applications.
Coastal morphodynamics. Classification of coasts - sediment classification - granulometric scales and indices - beach profiles (6 hours).
Wave generation. Characteristics of winds - Beaufort scale - wind wave prediction - significant wave method (SMB) (4 hours).
Linear wave theory - Conservation of mass and momentum - boundary conditions - I order solution - kinematics and dynamics - wave transformation - shoaling and refraction - analytical methods for the calculation of refraction - breaking - Irribarren parameter - wave steepness - breaking wave classification (7 hours).
Random waves and sea level. Wave measurement - National Wave Network - analysis of records in the time and frequency domain - characteristic waves - significant wave - astronomical and meteorological tide - wave set-up, wind set-up and inverted barometer - wave run-up on beaches - long-term wave forecast - sample selection - POT method - parameter calculation - fit test - design wave height calculation - return period and design life - Technical Recommendations on the return period ( 8 hours).
Transportation of sediments. Bottom and suspended transport - bottom transport for currents - active forces and resistive forces - Shields number and parameter - suspended transport for currents - falling speed - bottom and suspension transport for waves and currents - Einstein model - transport mechanism in the swash zone - qualitative parameters of erosion and growth - quantitative parameters - Bruun rule - calculation of the retreat in static and dynamic conditions - longitudinal transport equations - one line models - GENESIS model - model calibration - comparison with evolution of the coastline obtained from remote sensing (10 hours).
Main defense works and their design - Atlas of the ISPRA coastal works - design of the defense works - main selection according to the Technical Recommendations of the Ministry LL.PP - hydraulic design - Irribarren's parameter - run-up height and overflow rate - limits of overflow flow rate - transmission coefficient - structural design - Hudson formula - limits of the formula - Van der Meer equations - rocks and artificial boulders - structure trunk and head (10 hours).
Artificial nourishment and dredging - equilibrium profile and classification of nourishment - calculation of volume and longevity - dredging - sampling and analysis - ISPRA manual - treatments for reuse of dredged sediments - applications (8 hours).
I part - Granulometric indices of a sample - geographic and effective fetch - calculation of the fetches - significant height with SMB method - wave set-up, wind set-up and inverted barometer - wavelength, velocity components on the surface and on the bottom - calculation of wave pressure - wave height on intermediate depth and breaking wave heights for straight and parallel depth contours. Offshore wave height design with RON data (15 hours)
Part II - transverse transport with Bruun method and Kriebel & Dean method - longitudinal transport with CERC formula - run-up height, overflow rate and transmitted wave height - armour layer design with Hudson and Van Der Meer formula - Calculation of the volume and longevity of a nourishment (14 hours).
Lessons in the classroom on the blackboard and with slides projection
Benassai E., 2010. Le onde marine. Liguori Editori, Napoli.
Benassai G., 2006. Introduction to coastal dynamics and shoreline protection. WIT press, Southampton.
CEM Coastal Engineering Manual.
Dean R.A., Dalrymple B., 1984. Water wave mechanics for engineers and scientists. Prentice Hall.
Slides on the site.
The examination involves an oral test.There is a test on the first part (maritime hydraulics), the overcoming of which is a rerequisite to be tested on the second part of the course.