ORGANIZATION DESIGN AND THEORY
The course aims to provide the knowledge and skills on the issues of business organization at multiple levels of analysis - micro, meso and macro - and human resource management.
The educational objectives of the course are: (i) to provide practical knowledge of the principles and methods of business organization through the understanding of the operational logics of the various functions, the motivation of the personnel and the importance of the corporate climate, (ii) to provide the tools for evaluating and controlling the company's organizational strategy and (iii) to provide models for improving the standards of organizational effectiveness and efficiency
It is necessary to have acquired and assimilated the basic notions of Business Economics, in particular the issues related to the organization and management of human resources.
Chapter 1: ORGANIZATION, A PROBLEM AND A DISCIPLINE
Let's start with the definition of "organization": what is it? From an etymological point of view, it is the ordered and connected whole of organs and actors, but there are very different forms of organization, for which we need a more in-depth analysis to find also what form of organization to use.
Chapter 2: KNOWLEDGE AND DECISION
A theory of economic organization requires specifying a model of how people can behave in economic action. Knowledge is the starting point of the decision-making process; a decision-making process is the breakdown of some choices in favor of others. It is a procedure that never starts from scratch but follows a learning process that is sometimes even tacit, and it generates preconceptions and preconceptions that are unlikely to change over the course of the actor's life (unless revolutions or epochal changes).
Chapter 3: SKILLS AND MOTIVATION
With the same motivation, different subjects or the same subject in different circumstances can generate very different performances based on unexpected external conditions.
Chapter 4: COORDINATION AND PRICE AND VOTE
Coordination is a tool for the effective regulation of the interdependencies between the actors, so there is a mutual modification of behaviors. Considering that almost all economic activities generate interdependence, one can understand how important economic coordination is. Coordination implies an evaluation of the effectiveness of the desired results that generates an exercise of influence among the interdependent actors, even if with different modalities.
Chapter 5: AUTHORITY AND AGENCY
Among the coordination systems based on the exchange of information, the authority plays an important role; it is an important alternative to systems based on unilateral decisions. Compared to a potential coordination scheme in which everyone communicates with everyone and reaches a common decision, coordination costs, information and negotiations are reduced here.
Some coordination problems that cannot be solved with the authority could be with the agency. An agency relationship is an exchange relationship between an actor who delegates to another actor the discretionary power to act in the interest of the principal. There is always an exchange relationship that justifies the transfer of decision and control rights, but in that case they remained with the interested party.
Chapter 6: GROUPS
Price, voting, agency and authority do not solve all coordination problems; an alternative method involves a direct and reciprocal adjustment between the interdependent actors. A group is composed of two or more individuals that interact and depend on each other to achieve a common goal and are formed to satisfy needs for security, protection, affiliation or friendship. The mechanism is to add individual quasi-incompetences to obtain a certain collective competence: a comparison is generated that helps to solve complex problems.
Chapter 7: NEGOTIATION
Negotiation is an interaction process in which two parties try to find a mutually acceptable result to resolve a conflict of interest situation, so it is not the result of a unilateral decision and is a very expensive process. Negotiation involves communication between the parties, an exchange of material or immaterial resources, a search for the most efficient exchange method and finally a joint decision to close the dispute. Negotiation is a process capable of managing uncertainty in the strong sense of being able to manage unstructured problems, although obviously it does not lend itself to solving all exchange situations because it is an expensive procedure that can often appear inefficient.
Chapter 8: RULES
It would be too costly to make case-by-case decisions on any relevant action, nor would it be useful to use unilateral decisions: there is a need to use a rule. The rules are a set of behaviors accepted as legitimate by all members of society, so everyone live
Organization, a problem and a discipline.
CONFIGURATION OF THE ACTOR: Introduction, Knowledge and Decision, Skills and Motivation
COORDINATION MECHANISMS: Price and vote, Authority and agency, Groups, Negotiation, Rules
ORGANIZATIONAL FORMS: A general model of organizational analysis and configuration, systems and contracts, structures, boundaries and coordination between companies.
The teaching activity of the Business organization course is organized in lectures, laboratory activities, individual and group work, case studies, company testimonials and project works.
Reference book: Grandori, A., "Organizzazione e comportamento economico", Il Mulino.
The objective of the examination is to verify the level of achievement of the previously indicated educational objectives. The exam is divided into: Intermediate test, Written exam, Oral exam. The intermediate test has the purpose of evaluating the study of the subject and the understanding of the basic topics (the student who does not show sufficient knowledge of the topics is not admitted to the final exam); to pass the test students must acquire at least 18 points out of 30. The time required for the test is 1 hour. It is not allowed to consult texts or use PCs, smartphones, calculators. The same rules apply to the written exam, which takes place instead at the end of the course and not in progress. Following the written tests, an oral exam is scheduled in which the ability to connect and compare different aspects treated during the course will be evaluated.