BIOCHEMISTRY AND BIOENERGETICS OF EXERCISE
Acquisition of knowledge related to the metabolism of the main energy substrates such as carbohydrates, fatty acids and amino acids. Energy balance of the anaerobic and aerobic mechanisms activated in skeletal muscle in humans.
Basic knowledge of Human Biochemistry.
Biomolecules: outline of structure and functional properties.
Flow of energy in living organisms: principles of bioenergetic and thermodynamic relations.
ATP and energy-rich compounds. Structure of skeletal muscle tissue. Energy substrates of skeletal muscle.
General concepts of metabolism: anabolic, catabolic and amphibolic pathways.
Skeletal muscle metabolism: classification of muscle fibers and biochemistry of contraction. Skeletal muscle bioenergetics: energy sources and mechanisms of ATP synthesis.
Anaerobic-alactacid mechanisms: phosphocreatine and myokinase.
Anaerobic-lactacid mechanisms: glycolysis and fate of pyruvate. Lactic fermentation. Monocarboxylate transporters (MCT). Utilization of the lactate. Cori cycle. Methods of measurement of blood lactate. Oxygen debt.
Glycogen: structure, function and metabolism. Role of muscle glycogen in function of physical activity and energy balance.
Aerobic mechanisms: the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex and its regulation. Krebs cycle and energy balance. Triglycerides and adipose tissue. Mobilization and delivery of fatty acids. Activation of fatty acids and the carnitine mitochondrial transport system. Beta-oxidation of fatty acids and energy balance. Outline of amino acid oxidation: transaminases and urea production. Mitochondria, membrane transporters and shuttle systems.
Oxidative phosphorylation: reactions, electron transport chain and ATP synthesis. Mechanism of ATP synthesis and ATP synthase complex (FOF1). Energy balance. Uncoupling proteins and agents.
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and health. Physical activity and ROS production.
Reading and commentary of scientific articles on applied aspects of Bioenergetics in Sport Sciences.
The course of Biochemistry and Bioenergetics of the Physical Exercise illustrates the main energy substrates used by skeletal muscle in human in relation to the different types of physical activity. The mechanisms of anaerobic and oxidative energy production and their energy balance are studied in depth.
The course includes classroom lectures. Students can take advantage of an electronic version of the didactic material used in frontal lessons.
Critical reading of the recent bibliography on the topics covered during the classroom lessons.
NELSON D.L., COX M.M., “Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry”, Macmillan Education Eds.
MOUGIOS V., "Exercise Biochemistry", Human Kinetics Eds.
MORAN L.A., HORTON R.A., SCRIMGEOUR G., PERRY M.D., “Principles of Biochemistry, 5/E”, Pearson Education Eds.
Tests to verify learning during the course by carring out a written tesk consisting of multiple-choice and open-ended questions, on the topics addressed up to the time of the test.
The final exam consists of an oral test on all the contents of the course. In particular, the knowledge of biochemical mechanisms involved in physical activity will be evaluated.