PHYSICS WITH LAB.
Quali/quantitative understanding of the fundamental principles of physics, in particular of classical mechanics, and some elements of modern physics, oriented to applications in the biological field.
Oral exam with pre-selective written test, based on multiple-choice questions with an elementary character. Optionally, students can present to the class, as individuals or as a group composed of at most five people, at the end of the course, the discussion of a paper on a problem inspired by the biological world, to be evaluated according to the Dublin descriptors. The evaluation of the essay, and the questions that will result from it, will be an integral part of the exam.
According to the Dublin descriptors, the student will be evaluated not only in terms of expected knowledge, i.e. knowledge of the topics covered during the course, but also in terms of skills (critical evaluation, ability to solve problems placed in a different context from that usual); autonomy of judgment (independent deepening of what has been learned, critical evaluation of problems, also in relation to connections with social, scientific or ethical themes, and capacity for argumentation); communication skills (ability to expose and communicate their knowledge with an appropriate scientific language, logical-deductive and synthesis ability in exposure).
Frontal lessons and experimental practices
Definition of physical quantity and its dimensions. Systems of measurement, units and fundamental constants. Scalar and vector quantities. Sum and difference of vectors: graphic method and algebraic method. Scalar product and vector product. The gradient vector. Recall of geometry and mathematical analysis: polynomial, trigonometric, logarithmic and exponential functions. Derivatives and properties of elementary functions and related graphic interpretations. Integrals and properties of elementary functions and related graphic interpretations. Overview and examples on differential equations.
Trajectory concept. Position and displacement. Mean vector velocity and scalar in the one-dimensional case. Uniform motion and uniformly accelerated motion in the one-dimensional case. Equations of rectilinear motion in the case of constant velocity and constant acceleration. Graphic interpretation of the laws of motion. Bikes in two and three dimensions. Uniform circular motion. Angular speed. Harmonic motion. Principles of dynamics: the laws of Newton. Inertial reference systems. The impulse theorem. Fields of forces. Gravitation and weight force. Integration of motion equations in a uniform force field; integration into a central force field. Elasticity and Hooke's law. Integration of the equations of motion in a field of elastic forces. Balance of a rigid body and levers
Applications of mechanics
The IgNobel prize 1996: why does the slice of jam always fall on the buttered side? - The musculoskeletal system as a mechanical system - Conditions of equilibrium of the human body - Levers: the trunk-vertebral system, the arm/forearm system, the mandible/maxilla system, the articulation of the knees - Mechanics of locomotion.
Fluid dynamic equilibrium - Continuity equation - Bernoulli's theorem - Surface tension and capillarity - Torricelli pressure and barometer.
Applications of fluid dynamics
Viscosity of the blood - Pressure, work and cardiac power - Elements of sedimentation, electrophoresis and centrifugation - The "soccer" physics: France-Brazil, 1997 and the goal of Roberto Carlos - Germany-Italy, 2006 and the goal of Fabio Grosso - Magnus effect.
Matter and radiation
Prodromos of the failure of classical physics: the radiation of the black body, the photoelectric effect, the Compton effect, the emission spectrum of the hydrogen atom - De Broglie's relation: particles like waves and waves are particles - The Heisenberg uncertainty principle - The wave equation in classical mechanics and quantum mechanics - The quantum description of translational motions: the particle in a box - The spectroscopic models of the harmonic oscillator and of the rigid rotator - The atom of hydrogen - The chemical bond - Elements of spectroscopy - Electromagnetic radiation - NMR spectra: the magnetic field of nuclei, chemical shifts and spin-spin coupling - X-ray spectra - Radioactivity
Radiomedical applications in biology
Effects of radiation on biological systems - X-rays in medical diagnostics - Tomographic images: computerized axial tomography (CT scan), positron emission tomography (PET), nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) - Overview of radiation protection
The course aims to bring the students closer to the understanding of the basic physical principles. While not neglecting the methodological and mathematical aspects, emphasis is given to the instrumental and informative aspect, with examples taken from the bio-medical world
The course is divided into macro-areas: kinematics and dynamics, fluid dynamics, energy-matter interactions and related biomedical applications.
As for the subdivision of hour of lessons into macro-areas:
- kinematics and dynamics and applications, 24
- fluid dynamics and applications, 12
- energy-matter interactions and applications, 12
Scannicchio - Fisica Biomedica - Edizioni EDISES
Oral examination with pre-selective written test