The course aims to provide the basic methodological tools for the study of fluid machinery and thermal power plants.
Learning outcomes (Dublin Descriptors)
1. Knowledge and understanding
The student must know
-the main functions performed by fluid machines and thermal power plants;
-the basic laws and standards on fluid machines and thermal power plants;
-the structural and functional characteristics of fluid machines and thermal power plants;
-the basic criteria for designing fluid machines and thermal power plant components;
-The operating problems of fluid machines and thermal power plants.
2. Applying knowledge and understanding
The student must demonstrate
-to apply the criteria for the selection and sizing of fluid machines and of the components of a thermal power plant;
-to understand the problems linked to the operation of fluid machines and thermal power plants.
3. Making judgements
The student must demonstrate that he has the basic knowledge for dealing and deepening in an autonomous way the issues related to the operation of fluid machines and thermal power plants.
4. Communication skills
The student must demonstrate the ability to easily explain to people the operation of fluid machines and thermal power plants.
5. Learning skills
The student must be able to update information about fluid machines and thermal power plants through texts and publications relating to the field of energy conversion in order to acquire the ability to undertake further courses, specialized courses and to be able to undertake further studies on energy conversion system and components.
The student must have acquired the following knowledge provided by the courses of Physics, Chemistry and Applied Thermodynamics and Heat Transfer.
- Solid body kinematics and dynamics.
- Combustion fundamentals and stoichiometric calculations.
- Thermodynamic properties calculations
- Basic Thermodynamics of thermal Plant
ENERGY CONVERSION (4+2 h Lesson+Numerical application)
Primary energy sources Environmental issues Classification of fluid-flow machines
THERMODYNAMICS (6+4 h)
Basic concepts First Law Maximum efficiency Reversibility and irreversibility Entropy Mass and energy balance Expansion, compression and heat transfer processes Isentropic efficiency Polytrophic efficiency Performance estimation
STEAM TURBINE PLANTS (6+4 h)
Steam-Turbine power plants Rankine Cycle Reheating Regenerative steam turbine Heat exchangers Schematics of nuclear plant Steam generator Natural and forced circulation One Through Steam Generator Combustion Efficiency
GAS TURBINE PLANT (6+4 h)
Basic Cycle Performance GT Components Heavy duty and aeroderivative Materials Blade cooling Regenerative gas turbine Intercooling and Reheating Part-load operation Steam Injection and Combined cycle power plant
INTERNAL COMBUSTION RECIPROCATING ENGINE (6+2 h)
Ideal cycle Real engine Valve-timing and valve-lift diagrams Power and Torque output Efficiency Engine operating parameters Supercharging Emissions
FLUID DYNAMICS: REVIEW OF THE FUNDAMENTALS (4+2 h)
Gas dynamics Properties Steady Flow Acoustic velocity Mach Number Stagnation Isentropic flow Nozzles Entropy considerations Wave Phenomena Schlieren shadow graph
TURBOMACHINERY (8+4 h)
Generalities and constructive aspects Blades and principle of operations Fluid flow through channels Turbine rows Energy transformation in a turbine stage Energy losses Velocity triangles and Eulerian expression of the shaft work Transformations of fluid between vanes: nozzles and diffusers One-dimensional analysis of the flow Design process and calculation of stage performance Part-load Turbine operation
PUMPS AND COMPRESSORS (8+2 h)
Pumping systems Basic liquid and gas Laws Performance analysis Impeller blades Performance curve and operational limits Net Positive Suction Head (NPSH) Dynamic compressors Surging and choking problems Multistage compressor construction Performance curves Positive Displacement Pumps Reciprocating and Rotary Pumps Types Positive displacement compressors Reciprocating compressors Rotary, Screw, lobe type air compressors Sliding vane compressors
HYDROPOWER PLANTS Classification Turbine Power output and efficiency
ENERGY CONVERSION (4h Lesson+2h Lesson+Numerical application)
STEAM TURBINE PLANTS (6 h Lesson +4h Numerical application)
GAS TURBINE PLANT (6 h Lesson +4h Numerical application)
INTERNAL COMBUSTION RECIPROCATING ENGINE (6 h Lesson +2h Numerical application)
FLUID DYNAMICS: REVIEW OF THE FUNDAMENTALS (4 h Lesson +2h Numerical application)
TURBOMACHINERY (8 h Lesson +4h Numerical application)
PUMPS AND COMPRESSORS (8 h Lesson +2h Numerical application)
HYDROPOWER PLANTS Classification Turbine Power output and efficiency (2h Lesson)
Lectures, classroom exercises
Dipak Sarkar, “Thermal Power Plant: Design and Operation”, Elsevier (1747) ASIN: B01FKWFHR8
Dixon, “Fluid mechanics and thermodynamics of turbomachinery; Elsevier India (2014)
ISBN-10: 9351071774; ISBN-13: 978-9351071778
Notes provided by the teacher
The exam includes the verification of the level of achievement of the previously indicated training objectives. The exam is divided into two parts:
- a written test to assess whether the student has learned the basic principles for evaluating the performance of fluid machines and energy conversion systems. The test includes exercises: i) performance estimation of a power plant thermodynamic cycle (gas turbine or steam power plant reciprocating engine); ii) performance estimation and design of an expansion stage (including velocity triangles and blades representation); iii) performance estimation of reciprocating engines, pumps or compressor.
- an interview in which the level of knowledge and the ability to present the topics covered during the course will be assessed. The interview will consist of at least three questions on thermodynamic topics applied to the study of energy conversion plants; fluid dynamics of turbomachinery; internal combustion engines.
The aim assessment of the written test is aimed at admission to the interview and will be considered passed if at least two of the three exercises have been carried out correctly. The final evaluation will take into account the correctness of the exercises carried out, the correctness and the quality of representation of diagrams, schematics and figures; of the correct use of symbols and formulas; of the ability to exhibit and master the topics.
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