The class is focused on the comprehension of the basic mechanisms underlying the function of the principal organs and systems of the human body. Particularly, at the end of the class the student will possess:
- Deep knowledge of the physiological mechanisms underlying the functions of following systems: central, peripheral and autonomous nervous system; skeletal and smooth muscle twitch; respiratory system and alveolar gas exchange; cardiocirculatory system; glomerular filtration in the kidney; bone tissue structure and Calcium deposition and re-adsorption. (Ability of comprehension).
-Ability to explain basic physiological concepts by means of X-Y graphs and the main Physiology Laws (Applied Comprehension Ability);
-The ability to distinguish physiological and non-physiological functions of the main organs and systems of the human body (Decision-making autonomy).
- Utilize a proper scientific language for communication either to specialists or naive people, not belonging to the motor sciences working environment (Communication skills.)
- To deepen concepts of interest, by autonomously selecting the appropriate sources of information (Learning ability).
Basic concepts of anatomy, biology, biochemistry.
1. Structure and composition of plasmamembrane. Fluxes of water, hydrophilic and hydrophobic molecules across plasmamembrane. Passive diffusion, primary active transport and secondary active transport. Examples of co-trasportation.
2. Properties of excitable membranes. Generation of the membrane potential; equilibrium potential of an ion; Nernst and GHK equations. Chemical and electrical gradients across membranes. Cellular organization of the CNS, Golgi and Cajal’s theories. Types and functions of glial cells.
3. Generation of nerve pulses. Voltage-gated and ligand-gated channels. Action potentials and graduate potentials. Sodium and potassium channels, voltage-sensor; inactivation properties and refractory period. Signal propagation.
4. Gap-junctions and electrical synapses. Chemical synapses, pre- and post-synaptic membranes. Quantal release of neurotransmitters; role of Ca2+ ions. Neurotransmitters and neuropeptides. Cleavage of neurotransmitters and re-uptake into pre-synaptic terminals. Excitatory and inhibitory synapses.
5. Ionotropic receptors; nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the motor junction. Glutamate ionotropic receptors. Metabotropic receptors. G-proteins, c-AMP, PI-turnover and Ca2 release from endoplasmic reticulum. Synaptic plasticity, long term changes of synaptic strength. Pre- and post-synaptic modifications involved in synaptic plasticity.
6. Sensory system. Exteroceptive and proprioceptive sensibiltity; fast and slow adapting mechanoceptors; classification of sensory fibers; muscle fuse and stretch reflex; Golgi’s tendon and strength reflex.
7. Phototransduction. Epithelial organization of the retina. Cones and rods, enzymatic cascade of the phototransduction. Dark current.
8. Motor system. Pyramidal and extrapyramidal motor pathways. Somato-topic organization of spinal motorneurons. Types of motor units FF, FR e S; muscle strength and recruitment of motor units. Basal ganglia and cerebellum.
9. Skeletal muscle. Structure of muscle cells, sarcomere structure, regulatory proteins. Heavy and light filaments, role of ATP. Isotonic and isometric twitch.
10. Mechanisms underlying muscle twitch. Regulatory proteins of the thin filament in skeletal and smooth muscles; Ca release and Ca2+ re-uptake mechanisms; smooth muscle. Autonomic innervation of smooth muscle.
11. Aerobic and anaerobic metabolism of white and red muscle fibers. Lactate production by glycolytic fibers. Oxygen consumption during physical exercise. Oxygen debt.
12. Heart physiology and circulation. Heart chambers, heart valves gating mechanisms. Types of cardiac muscle cells; working myocites, pacemaker myocites and conduction myocites. Authoritmicity in pacemaker cells and absence of authoritmicity in working myocites. Autonomous control of heart rate; renin-angiotensin system and atrial myocite factor secretion for controlling heart rate.
Blood pressure and control of circulating blood volume.
13. Respiratory system. Anatomical organization of lung and rib cage. Lung pressure and pleural pressure during respiratory cycle. P-V relationship during respiration. Effect of surfactant. Changes in volumes during physical activity. Respiratory frequency. Gas diffusion through alveolar membrane and capillary endothelium. Blood gas transportation; blood dissociation curve for O2 and CO2.
14. Renal system. Anatomic structure of kidneys. Blood income into single nephrons. Pressures underlying ultrafiltration. Organization of the filtration barrier. Tubular functions. pH control by renal collector duct, metabolic acidosis and alkalosis.
15. Bone tissue. Main bone types in human body. Spongy bone and compact bone. Organization of bone lamellae, osteons and interstitial lamellae. Principal types of bone cells, osteocytes, osteoblasts, osteoclasts and their functions. Regulation of bone deposition and remodeling. Mechanisms of osteogenesis.
1. Cell membrane and transportation of different molecules.
2. Properties of excitable membranes.
3. Generation of nerve pulses.
4. Signal transmission.
5. Types of membrane receptors.
6. Sensory system.
8. Motor system.
9. Skeletal muscle.
10. Mechanisms underlying muscle twitch.
11. Aerobic and anaerobic energy metabolism utilized by muscle cells.
12. Heart physiology and circulation.
13. Respiratory system.
14. Renal system.
15. Bone tissue.
The class is performed by means of frontal lessons.
1. Fisiologia, Autori vari, a cura di E. D'Angelo e A. Peres, Edi Ermes
2. Any book related to Physiology for three-years degree in Motor Science.
Aim of the examination test will be to ascertain the achievement of training objectives reported above. By means of an oral test, we will ascertain the level of knowledge of the different topics, scientific language skills, the ability to comunicate concepts and to correlate different topics. The student's ability to explain scientific concepts of physiology by means of X-Y graphs and to gain additional information in published literature will be also assessed.