The course aims to provide the fundamentals of the flow of fluid currents under pressure and free surface currents and the tools for the calculation of the main problems of statics and design and verification of pipelines.
basic notions of mathematical analysis and elementary phisics
Fluids and their movement. Definition of fluid - Fluids as continuous systems - Quantities of fluid mechanics and measurement units - Stresses in continuous systems - Density and specific weight - Compressibility - Viscosity - Main categories of non-Newtonian fluids. Fluid statics: Internal efforts in fluids at rest - Indefinite equation of fluid statics - Global equation of static equilibrium - Statics of incompressible gravity fluids: measurement of pressure, thrust on a surface, thrust on curved surfaces - Thrust over immersed bodies -Fluid kinematics: Velocity and acceleration - Meaning of the components of convective acceleration - Characteristic elements of motion - Continuity equations - Fundamental equations of fluid dynamics - Indefinite motion equation - Euler equation - Global equation of dynamic equilibrium. Practical problems related to long pipelines: Generality. Verification of the functioning of pipeline systems - Dimensioning of pipeline systems. Outline of the cost of a pipeline, Operating costs, Gravity pipeline systems, pumping systems. Possible altimetric tracks.Free flowing currents: Generality. Uniform motion. Outflow scale: open and closed sections. Energy characteristics of a current in a section. River beds with weak and steep slopes. Kinematic character of the two types of current. Currents in permanent motion. Free hair profiles. Low-slope riverbeds. Sloping riverbeds. Tracing of permanent motion profiles.
Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics - Definition of fluid and its properties. The continuous fluid. Forces acting on a continuous fluid. The state of tension in a fluid at rest. The state of tension in a fluid in motion. Material derivative and local derivative, transport theorem. The principle of conservation of mass and momentum in a global form. State of tension in a still fluid, cardinal equations of statics, static thrusts on flat and bumpy surfaces. State of tension in a fluid in motion, the stress tensor. Scheme of ideal fluid and Bernoulli's theorem. Still fluids: - The pressure distribution in an incompressible fluid and in a barotropic fluid. Evaluation of the thrust exerted on flat and curvy surfaces . Fluids in motion: the current scheme - Fluid currents: definition and characteristic quantities. The principle of conservation of mass and momentum for a current.The currents under pressure - The calculation of the resistances distributed in the currents in pressure in steady and uniform motion. Concentrated energy dissipation in pressure currents. Design and verification of simple pumping systems.The free surface currents - the calculation of the resistances distributed in the currents in stationary and uniform motion, the uniform motion depth. Possible free surface current in stationary state, critical depth. Stationary and non-uniform currents, the profile equation.
Classroom lessons with slides and blackboard;
numerical exercises on the blackboard with solution.
D. Citrini - G. Noseda
Idraulica; Casa Editrice Ambrosiana - Milano
B. Brunone - M. Ferrante - A. Berni; Esercizi di Idraulica - Parte I; Editore Morlacchi;
Written and oral exam.
Mid-term test which gives the opportunity to attend the oral exam after passing only the second exercise of the two included in the written test.