DEVELOPMENT BIOLOGY AND ANIMAL PHYLOGENESIS
The course aims to provide to the students the theoretical and applicative aspects of reproductive processes, embryonic development and evolution of systems in the different vertebrate classes.
The main goal is to drive the students towards the understanding of the mechanisms of cellular differentiation and embryo development through evolution leading to biodiversity.
Knowledge and understanding: The student must demonstrate knowledge of the different reproductive modalities and the embryonic development in the different vertebrate classes related to aquatic and terrestrial life; in particular, the student should learn how organisms develop, the cellular, molecular and genetic mechanisms involved. The student must demonstrate the knowledge of the anatomy of the apparatus and systems, their function, structures and their evolution in the different vertebrate classes.
Ability to apply knowledge and understanding: the student must demonstrate the ability to use their acquired knowledge and to apply them to the scientific issues discussed .He must be able to elaborate discussions about embryogenesis, the different reproductive methodologies, the mechanisms of cell differentiation, the main mechanisms of evolutionary biology. This knowledge will represent the methodological tools that can be used for experimental research in the field of basic and applied biology. To this end, supplementary teaching activities are included which include practical activities in Developmental Biology and Animal Phylogenesis
Autonomy of judgment: the student should be able to assess independently the concepts acquired during the lectures necessary to evaluate the evolutionary processes, to distinguish the different stages of the embryonic development in the organisms used as model system and to recognize the different apparatus and their phylogenetic origin.
Communication Skills: The student should be able to communicate his knowledge to people with less experience in this field. He must have the ability to discuss an elaborate on Biology of Development and Animal Phylogenesis using an appropriate scientific language.
Learning Skills: Student must be able to update continuously and deepen topics about Biology of Development and Animal Phylogenesis, widening his knowledge on books and scientific papers.
It is necessary to have acquired the knowledge provided by the Cytology and Histology course.
Epigenesis and preformationism theory. Coelom. Genetic control of embryonic development. Development of gonads. Germ cells. Oogenesis
Spermatogenesis. Fertilization. Segmentation. Gastrulation.
Organogenesis. Neurulation. Embryonic annexes. Bird development. Mammals development. Evolution of embryonic annexes and placental development. Phylogeny and ontogenesis. Classification. Homology and analogy. Protostomes and Deuterostomes. Characteristics of Chordata and their Phylogenetic Relations. Origin of vertebrates and their characteristics.
Origin of Gnathostomes. Elasmobranches. Osteichthyes.
Origins of Tetrapods. Amphibians.
Reptiliomorpha and origin of the Amniotes. Theropoda and origin of Birds.
The apparatus in the different classes of vertebrates, their evolution and adaptation.
- Evolution of the axial skeleton
-Development of skull: splanchnocranium and neurocranium
- Respiratory system - Circulatory system.
-Nervous System: characteristics.
The course forecasts 72 hours of frontal lectures; practical activity
in pdf format provided by the teacher during the course, available on the link of theLectures Development Biology course and Animal Phylogeny.
Andreuccetti et al., Biologia dello sviluppo, McGraw-Hill
Le Moigne e Foucrier, Biologia dello sviluppo, Edises
-Gilbert, Biologia dello sviluppo, Zanichelli
-Anatomia Comparata Stingo et al., Edi-ermes
-Liem, Anatomia Comparata dei Vertebrati ed. EdiSES
-Kardong, Anatomia Comparata dei Vertebrati ed. Feltrinelli, 2005
The objective of the exam is to check the level of achievement of the above-mentioned training objectives. The exam consists of a single written test performed during the course ; an oral test in which the ability to connect and compare different aspects acquired during the lectures will be evaluated.