Education objectives: the main educational objectives of the course are related to the knowledge of the manoeuvring qualities and the factors that determine them. The course is focused on the steering and manoeuvring systems, on the ship’s characteristics that determine the manoeuvring ability and how they can change in shallow and/or restricted water, or in the presence of wind and current, highlighting the actions to be undertaken. Besides, the course deals with the issues related to the standard manoeuvres and the information obtained from them. Besides, the correct interpretation of the main international Rules for the ship manoeuvrability is a further objective, which is reached by the analysis of the main international rules, the discussion of several case studies and the application to existing reference ships.
Knowledge and understanding: students shall prove to know the main topics related to the government and manoeuvring of the ship.
Ability to apply knowledge and understanding: students shall prove to apply the acquired topics and theoretical proficiencies, required to evaluate the manoeuvrability and propulsion characteristics of the common types of ship.
Judgment autonomy: students shall autonomously evaluate and assess the ship manoeuvrability and propulsion characteristics applying the best resolutions to increase them.
Communicative Skills: students shall acquire the skill of presenting a numerical application about the analysis of standard manoeuvres simulated in laboratory.
Learning Skills: students shall be capable of continuously update their skills, by reading books, articles and rules (mainly in English), in order to acquire a good capacity of enhancing the own knowledge in the field of ship Manoeuvrability.
Even if not mandatory, it is suggested to have passed the exams of Ship geometry and hydrostatics, Maths and Physics.
Motion’s equations (C.1-14h): course
stability degrees; positions and ship motions; motion’s equations;
external forces; motion’s equations in algebraic form; the derivatives in
non-dimensional form; the decoupling of the sway and yaw equations;
Nomoto indices; the intrinsic stability of the route; the parameters on
which stability depends; the Norrbin index; mechanical interpretation of
the turning circle and rotation diameter; reduction of rotation diameter;
the theoretical and experimental determination of the coefficients of the
linearized motion’s equations; captive tests; tests with the mechanism of
planar motion; the non-linearized equations and the calculation of the
route resulting from a manoeuvre.
Control and government systems (C.2-20h): active and passive devices;
control and manoeuvring systems; types of rudders, rudders area, rudder shape,
rudder positioning; classical and alternative solutions for manoeuvring
and propulsion; optimization of propulsive performance.
Sea trials (C.1-12h): the standard manoeuvres; the standards set by the
IMO for manoeuvrability; the turning circle manoeuvre; crash stop and inertial
stopping test; the spiral manoeuvre (by Dieudonnè); the reverse spiral
manoeuvres; the zig-zag and zeta manoeuvres; the pull-out manoeuvre
and the minimum standards for the straight-line stability; Williamson test;
indices derived from standard manoeuvres; information recommended on
board; IMO Resolution A.601 and Resolution MSC.137 (76); the pilot card;
wheelhouse poster; manoeuvring booklet.
Characteristics of manoeuvring in narrow water and shallow water
(C.1-10h): effects of load condition, trim and speed on the ship
manoeuvrability; manoeuvres in restricted waters; the effects of current
and wind; shallow waters effect, sluggish movement and squat effect;
interaction between ships and between ship and shores; under keel
clearance; COLREG 72 (regulation to avoid collisions at sea).
Anchoring and mooring of the ship (C.1-4h): mooring and unmooring in
various situations of wind, tide, current, with or without tug; choice of
anchor; anchoring with one or two anchors; length to use for the chain;
anchoring in deep and shallow water.
The course deals with the elements required to ensure the knowledge of the theoretical and practical fundamentals of the controllability and manoeuvre of ships. The course furnishes some competencies required by the STCW Convention, as amended, for Deck Officers at Operational Level, embodied in the MIT decree dated 19th December 2016, namely “Percorso formativo per accedere alle figure professionali di Allievo Ufficiale di Coperta e Allievo Ufficiale di Macchina”. Particularly, the course furnishes the following competencies, listed in the Attachment I of the above-mentioned decree, for Deck Officer Cadets:
C.1: Ship systems of control and manoeuvrability (20 h);
C.2: Maneuvering and steering of the ship (40 h).
Further details about the acquired competencies are furnished in the extended version of the programme
Frontal lessons, discussion of case studies, laboratory simulations.
The teaching material consists of:
- - Reference books in Italian and English;
- - Technical Rules in English;
- - Lecture notes of all lessons
The exam consists of verifying the achievement of the previously defined educational goals, by an oral examination during which students shall discuss several plant schemes of existing ships, to evaluate the autonomous capacity of reading and comprehension.