Applied thermodynamics and fundamental of energy management
The course provides the fundamental principles of thermodynamics, their application to the study of energy conversion systems, and the analysis of heat transfer problems.
Besides, the course aims at the formation of engineers that can face the challenges related to the rational and eco-compatible use of energy. Beyond the technical knowledge, the main economic indicators are taken into account to assess a pre-feasibility analysis of energy-saving systems.
Knowledge and understanding:
At the end of the course students must: know the fundamental principles of thermodynamics to study closed and open systems; understand how to evaluate thermodynamic properties of pure substances; know how to evaluate the energy performance of the major thermodynamic cycles for energy conversion; manage heat transfer mechanisms and evaluate heat transfer problems with particular reference to simple geometries in a stationary mode; be aware of energy challenges at national and international levels; know the main energy conversion systems, the energy-saving assessment indices and the economic evaluation indices of the investments; know the tariff framework of the energy sector.
Ability to apply knowledge and understanding:
The student must demonstrate that he / she is able to: apply the fundamental principles of thermodynamics to the main systems that are met in engineering practice; to evaluate the energy performance of the main thermodynamic cycles for energy conversion;
to analyze the thermal exchange mechanisms encountered in engineering applications, and to evaluate heat transmission in simple geometries under stationary conditions; formulate pre-feasibility studies by using the acquired methodologies; carry out the techno-economic evaluation of different energy conversion systems.
Autonomy of judgment:
The student must demonstrate that he/she has developed the ability to critically and autonomously assess the issues of energy interaction between systems of interest for engineering applications and the surrounding environment. Moreover, the student must be able to analyze a conversion energy system by considering all possible options in order to identify the best solution, even considering tariff and regulatory frameworks evolution.
Student must mature the ability to explain in a simple way, even to people who are not experts in the field, with a clear and rigorous language from a scientific point of view, the issues related to thermodynamic energy conversion and heat transfer, the working principle of the main energy conversion systems, the importance of energy saving and of the roles of tariffs and regulatory.
Students must be able to update by consulting texts and publications related to the energy sector, starting with the knowledge and method of analysis acquired during the course.
Necessary that students have acquired the following knowledge, provided in the I and II Calculus courses:
- Concepts of limits, integration, and derivation of functions of a single variable;
- Functions of multiple variables, partial derivatives, and superficial integrals;
- Differential and series of functions.
In addition, it is useful that the student has gained the following knowledge, provided in the Physics I Course: Unit Measurement Systems, Scalar, and Vector quantities: Force, velocity, and Acceleration.
Basics (1,0 CFU): basic definitions; measurement systems; thermodynamic equilibrium state, path and process; heat and work transfer, definition and comparison, sign convention; first law of thermodynamics –application to closed systems; limitations of the first law of thermodynamics; second law of thermodynamics; reversible and irreversible processes; irreversibilities; concept of enthalpy; Gibbs equations; concept of entropy; Clausius inequality; displacement work; Kelvin–Planck statement; T-s diagram.
Determination of the state at equilibrium and close systems (1,5 CFU): p–v–T Surface and Projections of the p–v–T Surface; specific heats; models to evaluate thermodynamic properties of pure substances; adiabatic, isobaric, isochoric and isothermal processes.
Open systems (1,0 CFU): transport theorem; conservation of mass, energy and entropy for a control volume; energy rate balance.
Components of thermal plants (1,0 CFU): pipes; heat exchangers; turbines; pumps and compressors.
Analysis of energy conversion systems (2,0 CFU): the basic Rankine cycle and its modifications, the basic Joule cycle and its modifications, vapour compression refrigeration systems and heat pumps.
Heat transfer (2,5 CFU): introductory mechanisms: conduction, convection and radiation;. Conduction: one-dimensional steady-state solutions; series and parallel mechanisms. Convection: Non dimensional numbers for forced and natural convection. Radiation heat transfer: radiative properties of surfaces, reflection absorption and transmission, black and grey body radiation.
Introduction to global energy issues (1 CFU): energy sources; environmental impact; energy demand; introductory concepts on tariff provisions, National and International Protocols for renewable energy sources, energy saving, environmental impact reduction.
Techno-economic analysis of energy saving systems (5 CFU): economic assessment of the investments; energy saving methods and systems and their technical-economic assessment: heat exchangers and pinch analysis, high efficiency boilers, vapor compression and absorption heat pumps, , co-generation and tri-generation systems; pre-feasibility analysis of energy saving systems for industrial and civil users.
The course introduces the fundamental principles of thermodynamics through the understanding of models used to describe these principles, and their application to the study of energy transfer and conversion systems commonly encountered in the profession of civil engineer. The principles of thermodynamics are introduced for the study of closed and open systems and applied to the analysis of components and cycles of thermal systems. In the last part of the course, the analysis of heat transfer problems is addressed, with typical applications in energy-intensive industrial process.
In addition, the course introduces the main energy conversion systems, the energy-saving assessment indices and the economic evaluation indices of the investments, and the tariff framework of the energy sector.
THE COURSE INCLUDES BOTH THEORETICAL LESSONS AND CLASSROOM EXERCISES. DURING THE FIRSTS, THE TECHNIQUES USED TO DESCRIBE ENGINEERING PROBLEMS RELATED ENERGY CONVERSION AND HEAT TRANSFER. DURING EXERCISES CLASSES, STUDENTS ARE INVITED TO SOLVE AN ENGINEERING PROBLEM, USING THE TECHNIQUES PRESENTED IN THE THEORETICAL LESSONS. THE SOLUTION OF PROPOSED ENGINEERING PROBLEMS IS OFTEN GUIDED BY THE TEACHER, TO DEVELOP AND STRENGTHEN THE ABILITY OF STUDENTS TO IDENTIFY THE BEST TECHNIQUES, HOWEVER, STUDENTS ARE ALSO REQUIRED TO WORK INDIVIDUALLY IN ORDER TO SELF ASSESS THE CAPACITIES AQUIRED BY EACH STUDENT.
ONE OR TWO TECHNICAL VISITS ARE ALSO PROPOSED AT ENERGY CONVERSION PLANTS, WHERE STUDENTS HAVE A WAY TO FACE PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS OF THE COURSE.
Lecture notes available from the course website.
R. Mastrullo, P. Mazzei, R. Vanoli, Termodinamica per ingegneri - Applicazioni, Liguori, 1996. (in Italian)
FURTHER SUGGESTED READINGS
Y.A. Çengel, Fundamental of thermal-fluid sciences, McGraw-Hill, VI edition - 2016.
M. Moran, H. N. Shapiro, D. D. Boettner, M. B. Bailey, Principles of Engineering Thermodynamics, Wiley, 8th ed. 2015.
Intermediate exercises (optional, marked at the student's request) are provided on the following topics: application of thermodynamic principles for thermodynamic systems; techno-economic assessment with pre-feasibility analysis of main energy conversion systems; heat transfer mechanisms.
The final exam is divided into two parts, which may take place on the same day or over a week (on the basis of the student's needs): a written exam, consisting of different exercises related to the topics of the intermediate exams, where students must demonstrate to solve the problems presented, and an oral exam during which the understanding of the topics discussed is assessed, the ability to apply the concepts learned to systems encountered in engineering practice and the ability to explain problems faced in a simple but rigorous scientific way.
Exam can be taken in English, upon student's request.