The course aims to contribute to the training of engineers able to address the issues related to the use of renewable energy sources and their integration with traditional sources. Particular emphasis will be given to solar energy for thermal and electrical end uses, wind energy, geothermal and geothermal-electric, biomass and elements for investment analysis considering the incentives and tariffs. For all the examined technologies, the operating principles, the methods for estimating energy production and for the technical-economic analysis of the investment will be analyzed.
Italian standards for energy auditing will also be provided. Moreover, basic elements of the energy planning will be analyzed.
Finally, the techniques for assessing the environmental impact of energy systems will also be examined in detail, with particular reference to the problems related to exposure to airborne dust.
Knowledge and understanding:
The student must demonstrate to know:
- the components and systems for the use of renewable sources;
- the economic evaluation indices of the investments;
The components and systems for the use of cogeneration and renewable energy sources
- the framework of incentives in the renewable sources sector;
- Italian Standards for the energy auditing
- smart energy systems based on the use of fossil and renewable sources;
- the cost of plants based on renewable sources;
- the economic calculation of the unit costs of electric and/or thermal energy.
- assessment of the environmental impact of energy systems;
- issues related to exposure to airborne dust.
Ability to apply knowledge and understanding:
The student must demonstrate to be able to:
- formulate pre-feasibility studies with application of the methods learned
- carry out the technical-economic evaluation of different types of systems for the use of renewable sources.
- address the issues related to the environmental impact of energy systems.
Autonomy of judgment:
The student must be able to carry out autonomously sensitivity analyzes based on the evolution of incentives and tariffs and regulations without neglecting environmental problems.
The student must have the ability to communicate with experts in the field with the relative technical language of the specific field. Furthermore, he must be able to explain, in a simple manner, even to non-experts in the sector, the problems related to the use of renewable sources, to their integration with the traditional sources, also considering their integration in smart energy grids, as well as the related environmental impact.
The student must be able to keep up to date by consulting texts and publications concerning the energy conversion systems sector, with particular reference to the renewable energy sector and its environmental impact.
The students are required to have acquired and assimilated the following knowledge provided by the course of "Applied thermodynamics and thermal science":
- fundamentals of mass and energy balances;
- fundamentals of plant components and energy conversion systems.
Energy sources, tariffs and energy exchange (8 Hours: 1 CFU)
Classification of energy sources. Italian and world energy overview in relation to the use of renewable sources. Regulatory framework and incentive systems for renewable sources. Repetitions on the economic evaluation of investments.
Cogeneration Plants (12 Hours: 1,5 CFU):: Main Cogeneration and polygeneration plants and related costs, tax exemption of natural gas, high efficiency cogeneration. Pre-feasibility case studies
Renewable energy sources and related costs: (32 hours: 4 CFU) Availability of solar energy, Solar Thermal, Solar Photovoltaic, Solar Thermodynamic, Wind, Hydraulics, Geothermal, Biomass and waste cycle.
Energy Audit (4 hours:0.5 CFU)
Introduction to the procedures Energy Audit; Objectives to be achieved; Italian Technical standards for Energy auditing: UNI-CEI TR 11428; UNI TS 11300; Energy Performance Indicators (EPI); Examples of Energy Audits in industrial and civil sector
Introductory Concepts of Energy Planning (8 Hours:1CFU)
Introduction to Energy System Analysis on large scale; Smart Energy Systems (Integrating electricity and heat and/or integrating electricity and transport); 100% RE systems; Technical energy system analysis and electricity market exchange analyses, Excess electricity diagrams and wind and solar power integration
Air pollution (8 hours: 1 CFU)
Plant emissions. Environmental impact assessment.
Dusts: classification, origin and effects on health; Aerosol thermodynamics; Measurement techniques of distributions and total dust concentrations; The characterization of the aerosol emitted from different anthropogenic sources and in the environment.
The course introduces the fundamental principles of energy management through the comprehension of the economic evaluation models of investments and their application to the study of cogeneration plants and technological plants from renewable energy sources (solar, solar thermal, solar photovoltaic, solar thermodynamic, Wind, Hydraulics, Geothermal, Biomass and waste cycle). The course also proposes to give elements to the “energy audit” through examples in the industrial and civil sector. In the last part of the course the following are addressed:
1) the analysis of large-scale energy systems through the principles of Energy Planning (Smart Energy Systems, 100% RE Systems, Electricity Excess Diagrams and integration of wind and solar energy)
2) Analysis of air pollution through the evaluation of the emissions of different pollutants from different anthropogenic sources with a related environmental impact assessment.
The training contents are transferred mainly carrying out lectures, exercises and seminars. The teaching approach includes the stimulation of the student's curiosity regarding the knowledge of practical problems, and the development of the ability to solve them.
Notes of the teacher
The objective of the exam is to check the level of achievement of the course objectives previously indicated. The exam is divided into 2 parts:
- written exam, which could be split in sub-tests for students who attend lectures, which is the base for accessing the oral exam;
- an oral exam in which the ability to link and compare different aspects of the course will be evaluated.