Main aim of the course is the comprehension of principal functional adaptations occurring in organs an systems of the human body involved in physical exercise.
Particularly, the acquired knowledge will confer students the following abilities:
- to know the principal adaptations induced by physical training on the respiratory system function, heart and circulation and skeletal and cardiac muscles, as well as the neural adaptations to physical exercise (Understanding skills);
- ability to build X-Y diagrams to explain the acquired concepts; ability to explain the most important Physiology Laws underlying the functions of the different organs (Applyed Understanding);
- based on the acquired information, the ability to discriminate between physiological and pathological aspects of organs and systems functions (Decision-making Autonomy);
- to acquire appropriate scientific language, to comunicate either within scientific community or to people in general (Comunication Skills);
- to gain important information on their own topics by selecting the adeguate sources available (Learning Skills).
Basic concepts of human physiology, anatomy, cell biology and biochemistry
1. Preferential use of carbohydrates for energy supply during physical exercise. Anaerobic glycolysis and glycolytic enzymes induced by physical training. Use of lactate and Cori’s cycle. Mechanisms of oxidative phosphorylation. Energy extraction from lipids. Energy extraction from proteins.
2. Energy sources during physical exercise of different intensity and duration. Maximal exercise. Submaximal exercise. Aerobic exercise. Oxygen consumption, oxygen debt, maximal oxygen consumption at steady state exercise. Oxygen consumption during recovery post-exercise. Active and passive recovery effects on blood lactate levels.
3. Adaptations of the respiratory system to physical exercise. Pulmonary and alveolar ventilation. Alveolar ventilation-perfusion ratio at rest and during submaximal physical exercise. Oxygen blood saturation at rest and during physical exercise. Bohr effect on hemoglobin saturation with oxygen. Temperature effects on oxygen release by hemoglobin. Neural control of ventilation during physical exercise. Metabolic acidosis and alkalosis; respiratory acidosis and alkalosis. Regulation of interstitial pH by buffering systems at rest and during maximal physical exercise.
4. Cardiovascular adaptations to physical exercise. Sistolic and diastolic blood pressure. Mean value of blood pressure. Changes of blood pressure in response to maximal, submaximal and incremental physical exercise. Intrinsic and extrinsic regulation of heart rate. Effects of physical exercise on blood distribution. Effects of physical exercise on peripheral resistances. Measurement of peripheral resistances at rest and during physical exercise.
5. Adaptations of skeletal muscle to physical exercise. Mechanisms of muscle hypertrophy induced by physical training: metabolic stress, muscle cell damage and mechanical tension.
6. Training of aerobic and anaerobic capacity. Cardiovascular adaptations. Pulmonary adaptations. Muscle strenght, structural and functional modifications induced by strenght training. Resistance training mechanisms.
1. Energy extraction from the three classes of macronutrients
2. Energy sources during physical exercise of different intensity and duration.
3. Adaptations of the respiratory system to physical exercise.
4. Cardiovascular adaptations to physical exercise.
5. Adaptations of skeletal muscle to physical exercise.
6. Training of aerobic and anaerobic capacity.
The class is performed by means of frontal lessons
•Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance (Exercise Physiology ( MC Ardle)) by McArdle BS M.Ed PhD, William D., Katch, Frank I.,
Katch, V (2006);
• Scienza e sviluppo dell’ipertrofia muscolare, Brad Schoenfed, G. Improta, Olympian’s publishing.
• Any book related to Exercise Physiology for master's degree in Motor Science.
Aim of the examination test will be to ascertain the achievement of training objectives reported above. By means of an oral test, we will ascertain the level of knowledge of the different topics, scientific language skills, the ability to comunicate concepts and to correlate different topics.