Chemistry and materials for new technologies - Mod B
The course aims to give the students the essential knowledge to investigate the chemical processes involved in the different fields of engineering. The course of Chemistry therefore aims to provide the student with the basic knowledge of the structure of matter, chemical bond and principles that regulate chemical equilibrium in homogeneous and heterogeneous systems with particular attention to aqueous reactions. In addition, basic knowledge of the chemical properties of the main elements of the periodic system and their major compounds is provided. The course aims to provide students with the tools to learn about chemical matter and chemical transformations as well as to transmit the ability to describe chemical phenomena through an appropriate scientific language.
Knowledge and understanding
At the end of the course the student will have integrated his knowledge about natural phenomena governing the transformation of matter, will have a complete overview of the laws governing the structure of atoms, molecules and compounds; know the theoretical reasons that are at the basis of the energy balance during the transformations of matter, will know how to obtain electrical work by processes of redox transformations.
Applying knowledge and understanding
At the end of the course the student will have developed the ability to understand some physical and chemical characteristics of the substances, such as state of aggregation and volatility, hardness and fragility based on the knowledge of their structure. He will know how to quantify spontaneity of chemical and electrochemical processes and quantify the mass and energy balance during these transformations.
By the end of the course, the student should be able to evaluate, with critical mind, the experimental measurements of chemical reactions
By the end of the course, the student must be able to explain chemical phenomena through the use of an appropriate scientific language. It must also acquire the ability to explain to not expert people the basics of material property / structure relationships, its transformations and applications to simple systems of everyday life.
Students should be able to continuously update themselves from texts or scientific articles, or by participating in seminars and conferences, thanks to the learning tools, curiosity and critical judgment gained by the individual elaboration of acquired knowledge and skills.
Basic knowledge of science programs in upper secondary education. In addition, knowledge of basic mathematical elements is needed. In particular, it is necessary to be able to solve first order, second order, logarithmic and exponential equations.
The matter and its properties. Classification of matter: elements, atoms, molecules, compounds. (2 hours)
Atomic structure. The electromagnetic radiation. Atomic models. The shape of atomic orbitals. Electronic configuration of atoms and chemical periodical. Periodic trends in the size of atoms, of the ionization energy, electronic affinity and electronegativity. (6 hours)
Atoms and elements. The molar mass. The mole. The balanced chemical equation: stoichiometric relationships. The limiting reagent in a chemical reaction. Stoichiometry (2 hours + 4 hours exercises)
The chemical bond. The valence electrons. The ionic bond. The covalent bonds and Lewis structures. The polarity of the bond. Molecular geometry. Hybridization. VSEPR theory. Nomenclature of inorganic compounds. Metallic bond. (6 hours + 6 hours exercises)
The gaseous state. Pressure and temperature of the gas. The ideal gas law. Gaseous mixtures. The distribution of molecular speed. Real gases: Van der Waals equation. (2 hours + 4 hours exercises)
Condensed phases. Intermolecular forces. Hydrogen bond. Liquid state. Solid state: ionic solids, covalent solids, metallic solids, molecular solids. The phase diagrams. (2 hours)
Thermochemistry. State functions. The principles of thermodynamics. Free energy and spontaneity of reactions. (2 hours)
The solutions. Factors affecting solubility: pressure and temperature. Quantitative expressions of concentration. Properties of solutions. Raoult’s law. Colligative properties. (4 hours + 6 hours exercises)
The chemical balance. Chemical kinetics. Chemical equilibrium. The law of mass action: equilibrium constant. Relation between Kc and Kp. Le Chatelier's principle. The parameters that can influence the equilibrium conditions. (6 hours + 6 hours exercises)
Equilibria in aqueous solution. Definition of acid and base. Monoprotic acids and bases in water. Water autoionization. Strength of acids and bases. The pH. The neutralization. Hydrolysis reactions. Problems that involve heterogeneous equilibria (solubility product). (6 hours + 6 hours exercises)
Electrochemistry. Balancing redox reactions. Galvanic cells. Dry batteries. Electrolytic cells. (2 hours)
The matter and its properties. Classification of matter: elements, atoms, molecules, compounds.
Atomic structure. The electromagnetic radiation. Atomic models. Electronic configuration and periodical properties.
Atoms and elements. The molar mass. The mole. Stoichiometric relationships.
The chemical bond. The valence electrons. Chemical bonds. Lewis structures. Molecular geometry. Hybridization. VSEPR theory. Nomenclature of inorganic compounds.
The gaseous state. Pressure and temperature. The ideal gas law. Gaseous mixtures. Real gases.
Condensed phases. Intermolecular forces. Liquid state. Solid state: ionic solids, covalent solids, metallic solids, molecular solids. The phase diagrams.
Thermochemistry. State functions. The principles of thermodynamics. Free energy and spontaneity of reactions.
Solutions. Factors affecting solubility: pressure and temperature. Properties of solutions. Colligative properties.
Chemical kinetics. Chemical equilibrium. The law of mass action: equilibrium constant. Relation between Kc and Kp. Le Chatelier's principle.
Equilibria in aqueous solution. Definition of acid and base. Water autoionization. Strength of acids and bases. The pH. Hydrolysis reactions.
Electrochemistry. Balancing redox reactions. Galvanic cells. Dry batteries. Electrolytic cells.
Frontal lessons with projection of slides prepared by the teacher. Numerical exercises carried out by the teacher and the students.
Brown, Lemay, Bursten, Murphy, Woodward, FONDAMENTI DI CHIMICA (terza edizione), Casa ed. EDISES, Napoli.
Brown, LeMay, Bursten, Murphy, Woodward, Stoltzfus, Chemistry: The Central Science, (14th Ed.), Pearson;
Giannoccaro, Doronzo, ELEMENTI DI STECHIOMETRIA, Casa ed. EDISES, Napoli.
Handouts by the teacher, available on the personal website https://elearning.uniparthenope.it/
The objective of the exam is to verify the level of achievement of the previously indicated training objectives. In particular, the student will be required to demonstrate that they have acquired a good knowledge of the theoretical and applicative aspects of general and inorganic chemistry and a critical sense for the selection and management of materials to be applied in different areas of industrial engineering, also through the presentation of a short project, written in power point, illustrating the production scheme of a specific component.
Intermediate verification / exemption tests are foreseen in the periods of suspension of teaching. Each student will have the opportunity to repeat each test during the suspension periods or at the end of the course.
The estimated time for each test is 90 minutes. It is allowed to use the periodic table and the scientific calculator, but it is not allowed to consult texts and notes or use PCs and smartphones.
The tests will consist in solving 5 numerical problems and 3 multiple choice / open questions.
Each test will be considered passed based on the positive outcome of at least 3 numerical problems and 2 questions. The grade for each test will be proportional to the completeness and accuracy of the answers, as well as the clarity in the presentation and will be expressed in 4 grading bands: A (30-25), B (24-18), C (16-17), D <16.
At the end of the entire course, if the results of the individual 3 intermediate verification / exemption tests are positive (at least two A or B), students will be notified of an overall evaluation out of thirty which will be averaged between the results of the individual tests.
If the total score is less than 18 it is necessary to take a new overall test that will focus on all the topics of the course.
Students are free to accept the outcome proposed by the teachers or ask to take a new test that will focus on all the topics of the course.
A possible oral test, in which the ability to connect and compare some particular aspects dealt with during the course will be assessed, will be planned in advance and amply illustrated to the students during the course of the lessons.
Lectures are in Italian. The professor is fluent in English and is available to interact with students in English, also during the examination.